selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver

The WebDriver implementation.

class selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.BaseWebDriver[source]

Abstract Base Class for all Webdriver subtypes. ABC’s allow custom implementations of Webdriver to be registered so that isinstance type checks will succeed.

class selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.WebDriver(command_executor='http://127.0.0.1:4444', desired_capabilities=None, browser_profile=None, proxy=None, keep_alive=True, file_detector=None, options=None)[source]

Controls a browser by sending commands to a remote server. This server is expected to be running the WebDriver wire protocol as defined at https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/wiki/JsonWireProtocol

Attributes:
  • session_id - String ID of the browser session started and controlled by this WebDriver.
  • capabilities - Dictionary of effective capabilities of this browser session as returned
    by the remote server. See https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/wiki/DesiredCapabilities
  • command_executor - remote_connection.RemoteConnection object used to execute commands.
  • error_handler - errorhandler.ErrorHandler object used to handle errors.

Create a new driver that will issue commands using the wire protocol.

Args:
  • command_executor - Either a string representing URL of the remote server or a custom
    remote_connection.RemoteConnection object. Defaults to ‘http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub’.
  • desired_capabilities - A dictionary of capabilities to request when
    starting the browser session. Required parameter.
  • browser_profile - A selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.FirefoxProfile object.
    Only used if Firefox is requested. Optional.
  • proxy - A selenium.webdriver.common.proxy.Proxy object. The browser session will
    be started with given proxy settings, if possible. Optional.
  • keep_alive - Whether to configure remote_connection.RemoteConnection to use
    HTTP keep-alive. Defaults to True.
  • file_detector - Pass custom file detector object during instantiation. If None,
    then default LocalFileDetector() will be used.
  • options - instance of a driver options.Options class

Adds a cookie to your current session.

Args:
  • cookie_dict: A dictionary object, with required keys - “name” and “value”;
    optional keys - “path”, “domain”, “secure”, “expiry”, “sameSite”
Usage:
driver.add_cookie({‘name’ : ‘foo’, ‘value’ : ‘bar’}) driver.add_cookie({‘name’ : ‘foo’, ‘value’ : ‘bar’, ‘path’ : ‘/’}) driver.add_cookie({‘name’ : ‘foo’, ‘value’ : ‘bar’, ‘path’ : ‘/’, ‘secure’:True}) driver.add_cookie({‘name’: ‘foo’, ‘value’: ‘bar’, ‘sameSite’: ‘Strict’})
add_js_error_listener()[source]

Listens for JS errors and when the contextmanager exits check if there were JS Errors

Usage:
async with driver.add_js_error_listener() as error:
    driver.find_element(By.ID, "throwing-mouseover").click()
assert error is not None
assert error.exception_details.stack_trace.call_frames[0].function_name == "onmouseover"
add_listener(event_type)[source]

Listens for certain events that are passed in.

Args:
  • event_type: The type of event that we want to look at.
Usage:
async with driver.add_listener(Console.log) as messages:
    driver.execute_script("console.log('I like cheese')")
assert messages["message"] == "I love cheese"
application_cache

Returns a ApplicationCache Object to interact with the browser app cache

back()[source]

Goes one step backward in the browser history.

Usage:
driver.back()
capabilities

returns the drivers current capabilities being used.

close()[source]

Closes the current window.

Usage:
driver.close()
create_web_element(element_id)[source]

Creates a web element with the specified element_id.

current_url

Gets the URL of the current page.

Usage:
driver.current_url
current_window_handle

Returns the handle of the current window.

Usage:
driver.current_window_handle
delete_all_cookies()[source]

Delete all cookies in the scope of the session.

Usage:
driver.delete_all_cookies()

Deletes a single cookie with the given name.

Usage:
driver.delete_cookie('my_cookie')
desired_capabilities

returns the drivers current desired capabilities being used

execute(driver_command, params=None)[source]

Sends a command to be executed by a command.CommandExecutor.

Args:
  • driver_command: The name of the command to execute as a string.
  • params: A dictionary of named parameters to send with the command.
Returns:

The command’s JSON response loaded into a dictionary object.

execute_async_script(script, *args)[source]

Asynchronously Executes JavaScript in the current window/frame.

Args:
  • script: The JavaScript to execute.
  • *args: Any applicable arguments for your JavaScript.
Usage:
script = "var callback = arguments[arguments.length - 1]; " \
         "window.setTimeout(function(){ callback('timeout') }, 3000);"
driver.execute_async_script(script)
execute_script(script, *args)[source]

Synchronously Executes JavaScript in the current window/frame.

Args:
  • script: The JavaScript to execute.
  • *args: Any applicable arguments for your JavaScript.
Usage:
driver.execute_script('return document.title;')
file_detector
file_detector_context(file_detector_class, *args, **kwargs)[source]

Overrides the current file detector (if necessary) in limited context. Ensures the original file detector is set afterwards.

Example:

with webdriver.file_detector_context(UselessFileDetector):
someinput.send_keys(‘/etc/hosts’)
Args:
  • file_detector_class - Class of the desired file detector. If the class is different
    from the current file_detector, then the class is instantiated with args and kwargs and used as a file detector during the duration of the context manager.
  • args - Optional arguments that get passed to the file detector class during
    instantiation.
  • kwargs - Keyword arguments, passed the same way as args.
find_element(by='id', value=None)[source]

Find an element given a By strategy and locator.

Usage:
element = driver.find_element(By.ID, 'foo')
Return type:

WebElement

find_element_by_class_name(name)[source]

Finds an element by class name.

Args:
  • name: The class name of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:
element = driver.find_element_by_class_name('foo')
find_element_by_css_selector(css_selector)[source]

Finds an element by css selector.

Args:
  • css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: ‘a.nav#home’
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:
element = driver.find_element_by_css_selector('#foo')
find_element_by_id(id_)[source]

Finds an element by id.

Args:
  • id_ - The id of the element to be found.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:
element = driver.find_element_by_id('foo')

Finds an element by link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to be found.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:
element = driver.find_element_by_link_text('Sign In')
find_element_by_name(name)[source]

Finds an element by name.

Args:
  • name: The name of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:
element = driver.find_element_by_name('foo')

Finds an element by a partial match of its link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to partially match on.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:
element = driver.find_element_by_partial_link_text('Sign')
find_element_by_tag_name(name)[source]

Finds an element by tag name.

Args:
  • name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:
element = driver.find_element_by_tag_name('h1')
find_element_by_xpath(xpath)[source]

Finds an element by xpath.

Args:
  • xpath - The xpath locator of the element to find.
Returns:
  • WebElement - the element if it was found
Raises:
  • NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn’t found
Usage:
element = driver.find_element_by_xpath('//div/td[1]')
find_elements(by='id', value=None)[source]

Find elements given a By strategy and locator.

Usage:
elements = driver.find_elements(By.CLASS_NAME, 'foo')
Return type:

list of WebElement

find_elements_by_class_name(name)[source]

Finds elements by class name.

Args:
  • name: The class name of the elements to find.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:
elements = driver.find_elements_by_class_name('foo')
find_elements_by_css_selector(css_selector)[source]

Finds elements by css selector.

Args:
  • css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: ‘a.nav#home’
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:
elements = driver.find_elements_by_css_selector('.foo')
find_elements_by_id(id_)[source]

Finds multiple elements by id.

Args:
  • id_ - The id of the elements to be found.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:
elements = driver.find_elements_by_id('foo')

Finds elements by link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the elements to be found.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:
elements = driver.find_elements_by_link_text('Sign In')
find_elements_by_name(name)[source]

Finds elements by name.

Args:
  • name: The name of the elements to find.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:
elements = driver.find_elements_by_name('foo')

Finds elements by a partial match of their link text.

Args:
  • link_text: The text of the element to partial match on.
Returns:
  • list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not
Usage:
elements = driver.find_elements_by_partial_link_text('Sign')
find_elements_by_tag_name(name)[source]

Finds elements by tag name.

Args:
  • name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:
elements = driver.find_elements_by_tag_name('h1')
find_elements_by_xpath(xpath)[source]

Finds multiple elements by xpath.

Args:
  • xpath - The xpath locator of the elements to be found.
Returns:
  • list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not
Usage:
elements = driver.find_elements_by_xpath("//div[contains(@class, 'foo')]")
forward()[source]

Goes one step forward in the browser history.

Usage:
driver.forward()
fullscreen_window()[source]

Invokes the window manager-specific ‘full screen’ operation

get(url)[source]

Loads a web page in the current browser session.

Get a single cookie by name. Returns the cookie if found, None if not.

Usage:
driver.get_cookie('my_cookie')
get_cookies()[source]

Returns a set of dictionaries, corresponding to cookies visible in the current session.

Usage:
driver.get_cookies()
get_log(log_type)[source]

Gets the log for a given log type

Args:
  • log_type: type of log that which will be returned
Usage:
driver.get_log('browser')
driver.get_log('driver')
driver.get_log('client')
driver.get_log('server')
get_pinned_scripts()[source]
get_screenshot_as_base64()[source]
Gets the screenshot of the current window as a base64 encoded string
which is useful in embedded images in HTML.
Usage:
driver.get_screenshot_as_base64()
get_screenshot_as_file(filename)[source]
Saves a screenshot of the current window to a PNG image file. Returns
False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in your filename.
Args:
  • filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This should end with a .png extension.
Usage:
driver.get_screenshot_as_file('/Screenshots/foo.png')
get_screenshot_as_png()[source]

Gets the screenshot of the current window as a binary data.

Usage:
driver.get_screenshot_as_png()
get_window_position(windowHandle='current')[source]

Gets the x,y position of the current window.

Usage:
driver.get_window_position()
get_window_rect()[source]

Gets the x, y coordinates of the window as well as height and width of the current window.

Usage:
driver.get_window_rect()
get_window_size(windowHandle='current')[source]

Gets the width and height of the current window.

Usage:
driver.get_window_size()
implicitly_wait(time_to_wait)[source]
Sets a sticky timeout to implicitly wait for an element to be found,
or a command to complete. This method only needs to be called one time per session. To set the timeout for calls to execute_async_script, see set_script_timeout.
Args:
  • time_to_wait: Amount of time to wait (in seconds)
Usage:
driver.implicitly_wait(30)
log_types

Gets a list of the available log types. This only works with w3c compliant browsers.

Usage:
driver.log_types
maximize_window()[source]

Maximizes the current window that webdriver is using

minimize_window()[source]

Invokes the window manager-specific ‘minimize’ operation

mobile
name

Returns the name of the underlying browser for this instance.

Usage:
name = driver.name
orientation

Gets the current orientation of the device

Usage:
orientation = driver.orientation
page_source

Gets the source of the current page.

Usage:
driver.page_source
pin_script(script)[source]
quit()[source]

Quits the driver and closes every associated window.

Usage:
driver.quit()
refresh()[source]

Refreshes the current page.

Usage:
driver.refresh()
save_screenshot(filename)[source]
Saves a screenshot of the current window to a PNG image file. Returns
False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in your filename.
Args:
  • filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This should end with a .png extension.
Usage:
driver.save_screenshot('/Screenshots/foo.png')
set_page_load_timeout(time_to_wait)[source]
Set the amount of time to wait for a page load to complete
before throwing an error.
Args:
  • time_to_wait: The amount of time to wait
Usage:
driver.set_page_load_timeout(30)
set_script_timeout(time_to_wait)[source]
Set the amount of time that the script should wait during an
execute_async_script call before throwing an error.
Args:
  • time_to_wait: The amount of time to wait (in seconds)
Usage:
driver.set_script_timeout(30)
set_window_position(x, y, windowHandle='current')[source]

Sets the x,y position of the current window. (window.moveTo)

Args:
  • x: the x-coordinate in pixels to set the window position
  • y: the y-coordinate in pixels to set the window position
Usage:
driver.set_window_position(0,0)
set_window_rect(x=None, y=None, width=None, height=None)[source]

Sets the x, y coordinates of the window as well as height and width of the current window. This method is only supported for W3C compatible browsers; other browsers should use set_window_position and set_window_size.

Usage:
driver.set_window_rect(x=10, y=10)
driver.set_window_rect(width=100, height=200)
driver.set_window_rect(x=10, y=10, width=100, height=200)
set_window_size(width, height, windowHandle='current')[source]

Sets the width and height of the current window. (window.resizeTo)

Args:
  • width: the width in pixels to set the window to
  • height: the height in pixels to set the window to
Usage:
driver.set_window_size(800,600)
start_client()[source]

Called before starting a new session. This method may be overridden to define custom startup behavior.

start_session(capabilities, browser_profile=None)[source]

Creates a new session with the desired capabilities.

Args:
  • browser_name - The name of the browser to request.
  • version - Which browser version to request.
  • platform - Which platform to request the browser on.
  • javascript_enabled - Whether the new session should support JavaScript.
  • browser_profile - A selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.FirefoxProfile object. Only used if Firefox is requested.
stop_client()[source]

Called after executing a quit command. This method may be overridden to define custom shutdown behavior.

switch_to
Returns:
  • SwitchTo: an object containing all options to switch focus into
Usage:
element = driver.switch_to.active_element
alert = driver.switch_to.alert
driver.switch_to.default_content()
driver.switch_to.frame('frame_name')
driver.switch_to.frame(1)
driver.switch_to.frame(driver.find_elements_by_tag_name("iframe")[0])
driver.switch_to.parent_frame()
driver.switch_to.window('main')
timeouts

Get all the timeouts that have been set on the current session

Usage:
::

driver.timeouts

Return type:

Timeout

title

Returns the title of the current page.

Usage:
title = driver.title
unpin(script_key)[source]
window_handles

Returns the handles of all windows within the current session.

Usage:
driver.window_handles
selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.get_remote_connection(capabilities, command_executor, keep_alive, ignore_local_proxy=False)[source]
selenium.webdriver.remote.webdriver.import_cdp()[source]