编写第一个Selenium脚本

逐步构建一个Selenium脚本的说明

当你完成 Selenium安装 and 驱动安装 后, 便可以开始书写Selenium脚本了.

八个基本组成部分

Selenium所做的一切, 就是发送给浏览器命令, 用以执行某些操作或为信息发送请求. 您将使用Selenium执行的大部分操作, 都是以下基本命令的组合:

1. 使用驱动实例开启会话

关于如何启动会话,请浏览我们的文档 驱动会话

        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()
            IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
      driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
        driver = ChromeDriver()

2. 在浏览器上执行操作

在本例中, 我们 导航 到一个网页.

        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");
    driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")
            driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");
    driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html')
      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html');
        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

3. 请求 浏览器信息

您可以请求一系列关于浏览器的信息 , 包括窗口句柄、浏览器尺寸/位置、cookie、警报等.

        String title = driver.getTitle();
    title = driver.title
            var title = driver.Title;
    title = driver.title
      let title = await driver.getTitle();
        val title = driver.title

4. 建立等待策略

将代码与浏览器的当前状态同步 是Selenium面临的最大挑战之一, 做好它是一个高级主题.

基本上, 您希望在尝试定位元素之前, 确保该元素位于页面上, 并且在尝试与该元素交互之前, 该元素处于可交互状态.

隐式等待很少是最好的解决方案, 但在这里最容易演示, 所以我们将使用它作为占位符.

阅读更多关于等待策略 的信息.

        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500));
    driver.implicitly_wait(0.5)
            driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(500);
    driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 500
      await driver.manage().setTimeouts({implicit: 500});
        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500))

5. 发送命令 查找元素

大多数Selenium会话中的主要命令都与元素相关, 如果不先找到元素, 就无法与之交互.

        WebElement textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"));
        WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"));
    text_box = driver.find_element(by=By.NAME, value="my-text")
    submit_button = driver.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value="button")
            var textBox = driver.FindElement(By.Name("my-text"));
            var submitButton = driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button"));
    text_box = driver.find_element(name: 'my-text')
    submit_button = driver.find_element(tag_name: 'button')
      let textBox = await driver.findElement(By.name('my-text'));
      let submitButton = await driver.findElement(By.css('button'));
        var textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"))
        val submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"))

6. 操作元素

对于一个元素, 只有少数几个操作可以执行, 但您将经常使用它们.

        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium");
        submitButton.click();
    text_box.send_keys("Selenium")
    submit_button.click()
            textBox.SendKeys("Selenium");
            submitButton.Click();
    text_box.send_keys('Selenium')
    submit_button.click
      await textBox.sendKeys('Selenium');
      await submitButton.click();
        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium")
        submitButton.click()

7. 获取元素信息

元素存储了很多被请求的信息.

        String value = message.getText();
    value = message.text
            var value = message.Text;
    value = message.text
      let value = await message.getText();
        val value = message.getText()

8. 结束会话

这将结束驱动程序进程, 默认情况下, 该进程也会关闭浏览器. 无法向此驱动程序实例发送更多命令.

        driver.quit();
    driver.quit()
            driver.Quit();
    after(async () => await driver.quit());
        driver.quit()

组合所有事情

让我们将这8个部分组合成一个完整的脚本, 包括需要使用的库:

按照选项卡底部的链接查看代码示例, 因为它将使用测试运行程序而不是独立文件执行.

package dev.selenium.getting_started;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

import java.time.Duration;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;

public class FirstScriptTest {

    @Test
    public void eightComponents() {
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");

        String title = driver.getTitle();
        assertEquals("Web form", title);

        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500));

        WebElement textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"));
        WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"));

        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium");
        submitButton.click();

        WebElement message = driver.findElement(By.id("message"));
        String value = message.getText();
        assertEquals("Received!", value);

        driver.quit();
    }

}
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By


def test_eight_components():
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()

    driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

    title = driver.title
    assert title == "Web form"

    driver.implicitly_wait(0.5)

    text_box = driver.find_element(by=By.NAME, value="my-text")
    submit_button = driver.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value="button")

    text_box.send_keys("Selenium")
    submit_button.click()

    message = driver.find_element(by=By.ID, value="message")
    value = message.text
    assert value == "Received!"

    driver.quit()
using System;
using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace SeleniumDocs.GettingStarted
{
    [TestClass]
    public class FirstScriptTest
    {

        [TestMethod]
        public void ChromeSession()
        {
            IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

            driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");

            var title = driver.Title;
            Assert.AreEqual("Web form", title);

            driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(500);

            var textBox = driver.FindElement(By.Name("my-text"));
            var submitButton = driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button"));
            
            textBox.SendKeys("Selenium");
            submitButton.Click();
            
            var message = driver.FindElement(By.Id("message"));
            var value = message.Text;
            Assert.AreEqual("Received!", value);
            
            driver.Quit();
        }
    }
}
# frozen_string_literal: true

require 'spec_helper'

RSpec.describe 'First Script' do
  it 'uses eight components' do
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

    driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html')

    title = driver.title
    expect(title).to eq('Web form')

    driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 500

    text_box = driver.find_element(name: 'my-text')
    submit_button = driver.find_element(tag_name: 'button')

    text_box.send_keys('Selenium')
    submit_button.click

    message = driver.find_element(id: 'message')
    value = message.text
    expect(value).to eq('Received!')

    driver.quit
  end
end
const {By, Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');
const {suite} = require('selenium-webdriver/testing');
const assert = require("assert");

suite(function (env) {
  describe('First script', function () {
    let driver;

    before(async function () {
      driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
    });

    after(async () => await driver.quit());

    it('First Selenium script', async function () {
      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html');

      let title = await driver.getTitle();
      assert.equal("Web form", title);

      await driver.manage().setTimeouts({implicit: 500});

      let textBox = await driver.findElement(By.name('my-text'));
      let submitButton = await driver.findElement(By.css('button'));

      await textBox.sendKeys('Selenium');
      await submitButton.click();

      let message = await driver.findElement(By.id('message'));
      let value = await message.getText();
      assert.equal("Received!", value);
    });
  });
});
package dev.selenium.getting_started

import io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager
import org.junit.jupiter.api.*
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals
import org.openqa.selenium.By
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import java.time.Duration

@TestInstance(TestInstance.Lifecycle.PER_CLASS)
class FirstScriptTest {
    private lateinit var driver: WebDriver

    @BeforeAll
    fun setupAll() {
        WebDriverManager.chromedriver().setup()
    }

    @BeforeEach
    fun setup() {
        driver = ChromeDriver()
    }

    @AfterEach
    fun teardown() {
        driver.quit()
    }

    @Test
    fun eightComponents() {
        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

        val title = driver.title
        assertEquals("Web form", title)

        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500))

        var textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"))
        val submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"))

        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium")
        submitButton.click()

        val message = driver.findElement(By.id("message"))
        val value = message.getText()
        assertEquals("Received!", value)
    }

}

Test Runners

If you are using Selenium for testing, you will want to execute your Selenium code using test runner tools.

Many of the code examples in this documentation can be found in our example repositories. There are multiple options in each language, but here is what we are using in our examples:

// Add instructions
// Add instructions
// Add instructions
// Add instructions

Install Mocha Test runner using below command in your terminal

npm install mocha

and run your tests using below command

mocha firstScript.spec.js
// Add instructions

接下来的步骤

利用你所学的知识, 构建你的Selenium代码.

当您发现需要更多功能时, 请阅读我们的WebDriver文档的其余部分.

最后修改 November 8, 2022: Remove driver managers (#1217) (66db4ad35b3)