这是本节的多页打印视图。 点击此处打印.

返回本页常规视图.

支持的浏览器列表

每个浏览器都有定制和特有的功能。

1 - Chrome specific functionality

These are capabilities and features specific to Google Chrome browsers.

默认情况下,Selenium 4与Chrome v75及更高版本兼容. 但是请注意Chrome浏览器的版本与chromedriver的主版本需要匹配.

Options

所有浏览器的通用功能请看这 Options page.

Chrome浏览器的特有功能可以在谷歌的页面找到: Capabilities & ChromeOptions

基于默认选项的Chrome浏览器会话看起来是这样:

    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
            var options = new ChromeOptions();
            driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome, options: options
      const Options = new Chrome.Options();
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(Options)
        .build();

下面是一些不同功能的常见示例:

参数

The args parameter is for a list of command line switches to be used when starting the browser. There are two excellent resources for investigating these arguments:

Commonly used args include --start-maximized, --headless=new and --user-data-dir=...

Add an argument to options:

    options.addArguments("--start-maximized");
    options.add_argument("--start-maximized")
            options.AddArgument("--start-maximized");
      options.args << '--start-maximized'
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.addArguments('--headless=new'))
        .build();

从指定位置启动浏览器

binary 参数接收一个使用浏览器的备用路径,通过这个参数你可以使用chromedriver 去驱动各种基于Chromium 内核的浏览器.

添加一个浏览器地址到选项中:

    options.setBinary(getChromeLocation());
    options.binary_location = chrome_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetChromeLocation();
      options.binary = chrome_location
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setChromeBinaryPath(`Path to chrome binary`))
        .build();

添加扩展程序

extensions 参数接受crx文件. As for unpacked directories, please use the load-extension argument instead, as mentioned in this post.

添加一个扩展程序到选项中:

    options.addExtensions(extensionFilePath);
    options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
            options.AddExtension(extensionFilePath);
      options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
      const options = new Chrome.Options();
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.addExtensions(['./test/resources/extensions/webextensions-selenium-example.crx']))
        .build();

保持浏览器的打开状态

detach 参数设置为true将在驱动过程结束后保持浏览器的打开状态.

添加一个布尔值到选项中:

Note: This is already the default behavior in Java.

    options.add_experimental_option("detach", True)

Note: This is already the default behavior in .NET.

      options.detach = true
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.detachDriver(true))
        .build();

排除的参数

Chrome 添加了各种参数,如果你不希望添加某些参数,可以将其传入 excludeSwitches. 一个常见的例子是重新打开弹出窗口阻止程序. A full list of default arguments can be parsed from the Chromium Source Code

设置排除参数至选项中:

    options.setExperimentalOption("excludeSwitches", List.of("disable-popup-blocking"));
    options.add_experimental_option('excludeSwitches', ['disable-popup-blocking'])
            options.AddExcludedArgument("disable-popup-blocking");
      options.exclude_switches << 'disable-popup-blocking'
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.excludeSwitches('enable-automation'))
        .build();

Service

Examples for creating a default Service object, and for setting driver location and port can be found on the Driver Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(log_output=log_path)
            service.LogPath = GetLogLocation();

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

$stdout and $stderr are both valid values

Selenium v4.10

      service.log = $stdout

Log level

There are 6 available log levels: ALL, DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, SEVERE, and OFF. Note that --verbose is equivalent to --log-level=ALL and --silent is equivalent to --log-level=OFF, so this example is just setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogLevel(ChromiumDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of ChromiumDriverLogLevel enum

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--log-level=DEBUG'], log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-level=DEBUG'

Log file features

There are 2 features that are only available when logging to a file:

  • append log
  • readable timestamps

To use them, you need to also explicitly specify the log path and log level. The log output will be managed by the driver, not the process, so minor differences may be seen.

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withAppendLog(true).withReadableTimestamp(true).build();

Note: Java also allows toggling these features by System Property:
Property keys: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_APPEND_LOG_PROPERTY and ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_READABLE_TIMESTAMP
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--append-log', '--readable-timestamp'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--append-log'
      service.args << '--readable-timestamp'

Disabling build check

Chromedriver and Chrome browser versions should match, and if they don’t the driver will error. If you disable the build check, you can force the driver to be used with any version of Chrome. Note that this is an unsupported feature, and bugs will not be investigated.

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withBuildCheckDisabled(true).build();

Note: Java also allows disabling build checks by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_DISABLE_BUILD_CHECK
Property value: "true" or "false"

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--disable-build-check'], log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)
            service.DisableBuildCheck = true;

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--disable-build-check'

Special Features

Casting

你可以驱动 Chrome Cast 设备,包括共享选项卡

      sinks = @driver.cast_sinks
      unless sinks.empty?
        device_name = sinks.first['name']
        @driver.start_cast_tab_mirroring(device_name)
        expect { @driver.stop_casting(device_name) }.not_to raise_exception
      end

网络条件

您可以模拟各种网络条件.

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

      @driver.network_conditions = {offline: false, latency: 100, throughput: 200}

Logs

Permissions

      @driver.add_permission('camera', 'denied')
      @driver.add_permissions('clipboard-read' => 'denied', 'clipboard-write' => 'prompt')

DevTools

See the Chrome DevTools section for more information about using Chrome DevTools

2 - Edge 特定功能

这些是特定于微软Edge浏览器的功能和特性.

微软Edge是用Chromium实现的,最早支持版本是v79. 与Chrome类似, Edge驱动的主版本号必须与Edge浏览器的主要版本匹配.

Chrome 页面 上找到的所有capabilities和选项也适用于Edge.

选项

Capabilities common to all browsers are described on the Options page.

Capabilities unique to Chromium are documented at Google’s page for Capabilities & ChromeOptions

使用基本定义的选项启动 Edge 会话如下所示:

    EdgeOptions options = new EdgeOptions();
    driver = new EdgeDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.EdgeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Edge(options=options)
            var options = new EdgeOptions();
            driver = new EdgeDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.edge
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :edge, options: options
      driver = await env.builder()
        .setEdgeOptions(options)
        .build();
    });

Arguments

The args parameter is for a list of command line switches to be used when starting the browser. There are two excellent resources for investigating these arguments:

Commonly used args include --start-maximized and --headless=new and --user-data-dir=...

Add an argument to options:

    options.addArguments("--start-maximized");
    options.add_argument("--start-maximized")
            options.AddArgument("--start-maximized");
      options.args << '--start-maximized'
        .setEdgeOptions(options.addArguments('--headless=new'))

Start browser in a specified location

The binary parameter takes the path of an alternate location of browser to use. With this parameter you can use chromedriver to drive various Chromium based browsers.

Add a browser location to options:

    options.setBinary(getEdgeLocation());
    options.binary_location = edge_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetEdgeLocation();
      options.binary = edge_location

Add extensions

The extensions parameter accepts crx files. As for unpacked directories, please use the load-extension argument instead, as mentioned in this post.

Add an extension to options:

    options.addExtensions(extensionFilePath);
    options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
            options.AddExtension(extensionFilePath);
      options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
        .setEdgeOptions(options.addExtensions(['./test/resources/extensions/webextensions-selenium-example.crx']))

Keeping browser open

Setting the detach parameter to true will keep the browser open after the process has ended, so long as the quit command is not sent to the driver.

Note: This is already the default behavior in Java.

    options.add_experimental_option("detach", True)

Note: This is already the default behavior in .NET.

      options.detach = true
        .setEdgeOptions(options.detachDriver(true))

Excluding arguments

MSEdgedriver has several default arguments it uses to start the browser. If you do not want those arguments added, pass them into excludeSwitches. A common example is to turn the popup blocker back on. A full list of default arguments can be parsed from the Chromium Source Code

Set excluded arguments on options:

    options.setExperimentalOption("excludeSwitches", List.of("disable-popup-blocking"));
    options.add_experimental_option('excludeSwitches', ['disable-popup-blocking'])
            options.AddExcludedArgument("disable-popup-blocking");
      options.exclude_switches << 'disable-popup-blocking'
    });
  });
}, { browsers: [Browser.EDGE]});

Service

Examples for creating a default Service object, and for setting driver location and port can be found on the Driver Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

Selenium v4.10

    EdgeDriverService service = new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(log_output=log_path)
            service.LogPath = GetLogLocation();

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

    EdgeDriverService service = new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

$stdout and $stderr are both valid values

Selenium v4.10

      service.log = $stdout

Log level

There are 6 available log levels: ALL, DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, SEVERE, and OFF. Note that --verbose is equivalent to --log-level=ALL and --silent is equivalent to --log-level=OFF, so this example is just setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLoglevel(ChromiumDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of ChromiumDriverLogLevel enum

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--log-level=DEBUG'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-level=DEBUG'

Log file features

There are 2 features that are only available when logging to a file:

  • append log
  • readable timestamps

To use them, you need to also explicitly specify the log path and log level. The log output will be managed by the driver, not the process, so minor differences may be seen.

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withAppendLog(true).withReadableTimestamp(true).build();

Note: Java also allows toggling these features by System Property:
Property keys: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_APPEND_LOG_PROPERTY and EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_READABLE_TIMESTAMP
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--append-log', '--readable-timestamp'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--append-log'
      service.args << '--readable-timestamp'

Disabling build check

Edge browser and msedgedriver versions should match, and if they don’t the driver will error. If you disable the build check, you can force the driver to be used with any version of Edge. Note that this is an unsupported feature, and bugs will not be investigated.

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withBuildCheckDisabled(true).build();

Note: Java also allows disabling build checks by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_DISABLE_BUILD_CHECK
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--disable-build-check'], log_output=log_path)
            service.DisableBuildCheck = true;

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--disable-build-check'

Internet Explorer 兼容模式

微软Edge可以被"Internet Explorer兼容模式"驱动, 该模式使用Internet Explorer驱动类与微软Edge结合使用. 阅读 Internet Explorer 页面 了解更多详情.

Special Features

Some browsers have implemented additional features that are unique to them.

Casting

You can drive Chrome Cast devices with Edge, including sharing tabs

      sinks = @driver.cast_sinks
      unless sinks.empty?
        device_name = sinks.first['name']
        @driver.start_cast_tab_mirroring(device_name)
        expect { @driver.stop_casting(device_name) }.not_to raise_exception

Network conditions

You can simulate various network conditions.

      @driver.network_conditions = {offline: false, latency: 100, throughput: 200}

Logs

Permissions

      @driver.add_permission('camera', 'denied')
      @driver.add_permissions('clipboard-read' => 'denied', 'clipboard-write' => 'prompt')

DevTools

See the Chrome DevTools section for more information about using DevTools in Edge

3 - Firefox specific functionality

These are capabilities and features specific to Mozilla Firefox browsers.

Selenium 4 requires Firefox 78 or greater. It is recommended to always use the latest version of geckodriver.

Options

Capabilities common to all browsers are described on the Options page.

Capabilities unique to Firefox can be found at Mozilla’s page for firefoxOptions

Starting a Firefox session with basic defined options looks like this:

    FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
    driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.FirefoxOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(options=options)
            var options = new FirefoxOptions();
            driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.firefox
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox, options: options
      let options = new firefox.Options();
      driver = await env.builder()
        .setFirefoxOptions(options)
        .build();

Here are a few common use cases with different capabilities:

Arguments

The args parameter is for a list of Command line switches used when starting the browser.
Commonly used args include -headless and "-profile", "/path/to/profile"

Add an argument to options:

    options.addArguments("-headless");
    options.add_argument("-headless")
            options.AddArgument("-headless");
      options.args << '-headless'
    let driver = await env.builder()
      .setFirefoxOptions(options.addArguments('--headless'))
      .build();

Start browser in a specified location

The binary parameter takes the path of an alternate location of browser to use. For example, with this parameter you can use geckodriver to drive Firefox Nightly instead of the production version when both are present on your computer.

Add a browser location to options:

    options.setBinary(getFirefoxLocation());
    options.binary_location = firefox_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetFirefoxLocation();
      options.binary = firefox_location

Profiles

There are several ways to work with Firefox profiles

FirefoxProfile profile = new FirefoxProfile();
FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
options.setProfile(profile);
driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.options import Options
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile import FirefoxProfile
options=Options()
firefox_profile = FirefoxProfile()
firefox_profile.set_preference("javascript.enabled", False)
options.profile = firefox_profile
  
var options = new FirefoxOptions();
var profile = new FirefoxProfile();
options.Profile = profile;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
profile = Selenium::WebDriver::Firefox::Profile.new
profile['browser.download.dir'] = "/tmp/webdriver-downloads"
options = Selenium::WebDriver::Firefox::Options.new(profile: profile)
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox, options: options
  
const { Builder } = require("selenium-webdriver");
const firefox = require('selenium-webdriver/firefox');

const options = new firefox.Options();
let profile = '/path to custom profile';
options.setProfile(profile);
const driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('firefox')
    .setFirefoxOptions(options)
    .build();
  
val options = FirefoxOptions()
options.profile = FirefoxProfile()
driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging various issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=log_path, service_args=['--log', 'debug'])

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Log level

There are 7 available log levels: fatal, error, warn, info, config, debug, trace. If logging is specified the level defaults to info.

Note that -v is equivalent to -log debug and -vv is equivalent to log trace, so this examples is just for setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogLevel(FirefoxDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of FirefoxDriverLogLevel enum

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=log_path, service_args=['--log', 'debug'])

Selenium v4.10

      service.args += %w[--log debug]

Truncated Logs

The driver logs everything that gets sent to it, including string representations of large binaries, so Firefox truncates lines by default. To turn off truncation:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withTruncatedLogs(false).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_NO_TRUNCATE
Property value: "true" or "false"

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(service_args=['--log-no-truncate', '--log', 'debug'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-no-truncate'

Profile Root

The default directory for profiles is the system temporary directory. If you do not have access to that directory, or want profiles to be created some place specific, you can change the profile root directory:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withProfileRoot(profileDirectory).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_PROFILE_ROOT
Property value: String representing path to profile root directory

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(service_args=['--profile-root', temp_dir])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args += ['--profile-root', root_directory]

Special Features

Add-ons

Unlike Chrome, Firefox extensions are not added as part of capabilities as mentioned in this issue, they are created after starting the driver.

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

Installation

A signed xpi file you would get from Mozilla Addon page

    driver.installExtension(xpiPath);
    driver.install_addon(addon_path_xpi)
            driver.InstallAddOnFromFile(Path.GetFullPath(extensionFilePath));
      driver.install_addon(extension_file_path)
    const xpiPath = path.resolve('./test/resources/extensions/selenium-example.xpi')
    let driver = await env.builder().build();
    let id = await driver.installAddon(xpiPath);

Uninstallation

Uninstalling an addon requires knowing its id. The id can be obtained from the return value when installing the add-on.

    driver.uninstallExtension(id);
    driver.uninstall_addon(id)

Selenium v4.5

            driver.UninstallAddOn(extensionId);
      driver.uninstall_addon(extension_id)
    await driver.uninstallAddon(id);

Unsigned installation

When working with an unfinished or unpublished extension, it will likely not be signed. As such, it can only be installed as “temporary.” This can be done by passing in either a zip file or a directory, here’s an example with a directory:

    driver.installExtension(path, true);
    driver.install_addon(addon_path_dir, temporary=True)

Selenium v4.5

            driver.InstallAddOnFromDirectory(Path.GetFullPath(extensionDirPath), true);

Selenium v4.5

      driver.install_addon(extension_dir_path, true)
    const xpiPath = path.resolve('./test/resources/extensions/selenium-example')
    let driver = await env.builder().build();
    let id = await driver.installAddon(xpiPath, true);

Full page screenshots

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

Context

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

4 - IE specific functionality

These are capabilities and features specific to Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers.

As of June 2022, Selenium officially no longer supports standalone Internet Explorer. The Internet Explorer driver still supports running Microsoft Edge in “IE Compatibility Mode.”

Special considerations

The IE Driver is the only driver maintained by the Selenium Project directly. While binaries for both the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Internet Explorer are available, there are some known limitations with the 64-bit driver. As such it is recommended to use the 32-bit driver.

Additional information about using Internet Explorer can be found on the IE Driver Server page

Options

Starting a Microsoft Edge browser in Internet Explorer Compatibility mode with basic defined options looks like this:

        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.attachToEdgeChrome();
        options.withEdgeExecutablePath(getEdgeLocation());
        driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.IeOptions()
    options.attach_to_edge_chrome = True
    options.edge_executable_path = edge_bin
    driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)
            var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
            options.AttachToEdgeChrome = true;
            options.EdgeExecutablePath = GetEdgeLocation();
            _driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.ie
      options.attach_to_edge_chrome = true
      options.edge_executable_path = edge_location
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :ie, options: options

As of Internet Explorer Driver v4.5.0:

  • If IE is not present on the system (default in Windows 11), you do not need to use the two parameters above. IE Driver will use Edge and will automatically locate it.
  • If IE and Edge are both present on the system, you only need to set attaching to Edge, IE Driver will automatically locate Edge on your system.

So, if IE is not on the system, you only need:

        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.IeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)
            var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
            _driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.ie
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :ie, options: options
let driver = await new Builder()
.forBrowser('internet explorer')
.setIEOptions(options)
.build();
<p><a href=/documentation/about/contributing/#moving-examples>
<span class="selenium-badge-code" data-bs-toggle="tooltip" data-bs-placement="right"
      title="One or more of these examples need to be implemented in the examples directory; click for details in the contribution guide">Move Code</span></a></p>


val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)

Here are a few common use cases with different capabilities:

fileUploadDialogTimeout

在某些环境中, 当打开文件上传对话框时, Internet Explorer可能会超时. IEDriver的默认超时为1000毫秒, 但您可以使用fileUploadDialogTimeout功能来增加超时时间.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.waitForUploadDialogUpTo(Duration.ofSeconds(2));
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options); 
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.file_upload_dialog_timeout = 2000
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.FileUploadDialogTimeout = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(2000);
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.file_upload_dialog_timeout = 2000
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().fileUploadDialogTimeout(2000);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();  
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.waitForUploadDialogUpTo(Duration.ofSeconds(2))
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ensureCleanSession

设置为 true时, 此功能将清除InternetExplorer所有正在运行实例的 缓存, 浏览器历史记录和Cookies (包括手动启动或由驱动程序启动的实例) . 默认情况下,此设置为 false.

使用此功能将导致启动浏览器时性能下降, 因为驱动程序将等待直到缓存清除后再启动IE浏览器.

此功能接受一个布尔值作为参数.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.destructivelyEnsureCleanSession();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ensure_clean_session = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.EnsureCleanSession = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.ensure_clean_session = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().ensureCleanSession(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.destructivelyEnsureCleanSession()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ignoreZoomSetting

InternetExplorer驱动程序期望浏览器的缩放级别为100%, 否则驱动程序将可能抛出异常. 通过将 ignoreZoomSetting 设置为 true, 可以禁用此默认行为.

此功能接受一个布尔值作为参数.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.ignoreZoomSettings();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ignore_zoom_level = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.IgnoreZoomLevel = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.ignore_zoom_level = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().ignoreZoomSetting(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.ignoreZoomSettings()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ignoreProtectedModeSettings

启动新的IE会话时是否跳过 保护模式 检查.

如果未设置, 并且所有区域的 保护模式 设置都不同, 则驱动程序将可能引发异常.

如果将功能设置为 true, 则测试可能会变得不稳定, 无响应, 或者浏览器可能会挂起. 但是, 到目前为止, 这仍然是第二好的选择, 并且第一选择应该 始终 是手动实际设置每个区域的保护模式设置. 如果用户正在使用此属性, 则只会给予 “尽力而为” 的支持.

此功能接受一个布尔值作为参数.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.introduceFlakinessByIgnoringSecurityDomains();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ignore_protected_mode_settings = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.IntroduceInstabilityByIgnoringProtectedModeSettings = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.ignore_protected_mode_settings = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().introduceFlakinessByIgnoringProtectedModeSettings(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.introduceFlakinessByIgnoringSecurityDomains()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

silent

设置为 true时, 此功能将禁止IEDriverServer的诊断输出.

此功能接受一个布尔值作为参数.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.setCapability("silent", true);
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.set_capability("silent", True)
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.AddAdditionalInternetExplorerOption("silent", true);
IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
  
    
    
    
    
    <p><a href=/documentation/about/contributing/#creating-examples>
    <span class="selenium-badge-code" data-bs-toggle="tooltip" data-bs-placement="right"
          title="This code example is missing. Examples are added to the examples directory; click for details in the contribution guide">Add Example</span></a></p>
    

  
const {Builder,By, Capabilities} = require('selenium-webdriver');
let caps = Capabilities.ie();
caps.set('silent', true);

(async function example() {
    let driver = await new Builder()
        .forBrowser('internet explorer')
        .withCapabilities(caps)
        .build();
    try {
        await driver.get('http://www.google.com/ncr');
    }
    finally {
        await driver.quit();
    }
})();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.setCapability("silent", true)
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

IE 命令行选项

Internet Explorer包含几个命令行选项, 使您可以进行故障排除和配置浏览器.

下面介绍了一些受支持的命令行选项

  • -private : 用于在私有浏览模式下启动IE. 这适用于IE 8和更高版本.

  • -k : 在kiosk模式下启动Internet Explorer. 浏览器在一个最大化的窗口中打开, 该窗口不显示地址栏, 导航按钮或状态栏.

  • -extoff : 在无附加模式下启动IE. 此选项专门用于解决浏览器加载项问题. 在IE 7和更高版本中均可使用.

注意: forceCreateProcessApi 应该启用命令行参数才能正常工作.

import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions;

public class ieTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe();
        options.addCommandSwitches("-k");
        InternetExplorerDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
        try {
            driver.get("https://google.com/ncr");
            Capabilities caps = driver.getCapabilities();
            System.out.println(caps);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.add_argument('-private')
options.force_create_process_api = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
using System;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

namespace ieTest {
 class Program {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
   InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
   options.ForceCreateProcessApi = true;
   options.BrowserCommandLineArguments = "-k";
   IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
   driver.Url = "https://google.com/ncr";
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.force_create_process_api = true
options.add_argument('-k')
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)

begin
  driver.get 'https://google.com'
  puts(driver.capabilities.to_json)
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options();
options.addBrowserCommandSwitches('-k');
options.addBrowserCommandSwitches('-private');
options.forceCreateProcessApi(true);

driver = await env.builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe()
    options.addCommandSwitches("-k")
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

forceCreateProcessApi

强制使用CreateProcess API启动Internet Explorer. 默认值为false.

对于IE 8及更高版本, 此选项要求将 “TabProcGrowth” 注册表值设置为0.

import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions;

public class ieTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe();
        InternetExplorerDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
        try {
            driver.get("https://google.com/ncr");
            Capabilities caps = driver.getCapabilities();
            System.out.println(caps);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.force_create_process_api = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
using System;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

namespace ieTest {
 class Program {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
   InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
   options.ForceCreateProcessApi = true;
   IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
   driver.Url = "https://google.com/ncr";
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.force_create_process_api = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)

begin
  driver.get 'https://google.com'
  puts(driver.capabilities.to_json)
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options();
options.forceCreateProcessApi(true);

driver = await env.builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe()
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging various issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogFile(getLogLocation())

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGFILE_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=log_path, log_level='INFO')

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogOutput(System.out)

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGFILE_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Log Level

There are 6 available log levels: FATAL, ERROR, WARN, INFO, DEBUG, and TRACE If logging output is specified, the default level is FATAL

                .withLogLevel(InternetExplorerDriverLogLevel.WARN)

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGLEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of InternetExplorerDriverLogLevel.DEBUG.toString() enum

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=log_path, log_level='WARN')

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '-log-level=WARN'

Supporting Files Path

                .withExtractPath(getTempDirectory())
**Note**: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:\ Property key: `InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_EXTRACT_PATH_PROPERTY`\ Property value: String representing path to supporting files directory

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.IeService(service_args=["–extract-path="+temp_dir])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << "–extract-path=#{root_directory}"

5 - Safari 特定功能

这些是特定于Apple Safari浏览器的功能和特性.

与Chromium和Firefox驱动不同, safari驱动随操作系统安装. 要在 Safari 上启用自动化, 请从终端运行以下命令:

safaridriver --enable

选项

所有浏览器通用的Capabilities在选项页.

Safari独有的Capabilities可以在Apple的页面关于Safari的WebDriver 上找到

使用基本定义的选项启动 Safari 会话如下所示:

        SafariOptions options = new SafariOptions();
        driver = new SafariDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.SafariOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Safari(options=options)
            var options = new SafariOptions();
            driver = new SafariDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.safari
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :safari, options: options
      let driver = await env.builder()
      .setSafariOptions(options)
      .build();
val options = SafariOptions()
val driver = SafariDriver(options)

移动端

那些希望在iOS上自动化Safari的人可以参考 Appium project.

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Logging

Unlike other browsers, Safari doesn’t let you choose where logs are output, or change levels. The one option available is to turn logs off or on. If logs are toggled on, they can be found at:~/Library/Logs/com.apple.WebDriver/.

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogging(true)

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: SafariDriverService.SAFARI_DRIVER_LOGGING
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.SafariService(service_args=["--diagnose"])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--diagnose'

Safari Technology Preview

Apple provides a development version of their browser — Safari Technology Preview To use this version in your code: