这是本节的多页打印视图。 点击此处打印.

返回本页常规视图.

浏览器

获取浏览器信息

获取标题

从浏览器中读取当前页面的标题:

driver.getTitle();
driver.title
driver.Title;
driver.title
await driver.getTitle();
driver.title

获取当前 URL

您可以从浏览器的地址栏读取当前的 URL,使用:

driver.getCurrentUrl();
driver.current_url
driver.Url;
driver.current_url
await driver.getCurrentUrl();
driver.currentUrl

1 - 浏览器导航

打开网站

启动浏览器后你要做的第一件事就是打开你的网站。这可以通过一行代码实现:

// 简便的方法
driver.get("https://selenium.dev");

// 更长的方法
driver.navigate().to("https://selenium.dev");
driver.get("https://selenium.dev")
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl(@"https://selenium.dev");
    # 简便的方法
driver.get 'https://selenium.dev'

    # 更长的方法
driver.navigate.to 'https://selenium.dev'
await driver.get('https://selenium.dev');
// 简便的方法
driver.get("https://selenium.dev")

// 更长的方法
driver.navigate().to("https://selenium.dev")

后退

按下浏览器的后退按钮:

driver.navigate().back();
driver.back()
driver.Navigate().Back();
driver.navigate.back
await driver.navigate().back();
driver.navigate().back() 

前进

按下浏览器的前进键:

driver.navigate().forward();
driver.forward()
driver.Navigate().Forward();
driver.navigate.forward
await driver.navigate().forward();
driver.navigate().forward()

刷新

刷新当前页面:

driver.navigate().refresh();
driver.refresh()
driver.Navigate().Refresh();
driver.navigate.refresh
await driver.navigate().refresh();
driver.navigate().refresh()

2 - JavaScript 警告框,提示框和确认框

WebDriver提供了一个API, 用于处理JavaScript提供的三种类型的原生弹窗消息. 这些弹窗由浏览器提供限定的样式.

Alerts 警告框

其中最基本的称为警告框, 它显示一条自定义消息, 以及一个用于关闭该警告的按钮, 在大多数浏览器中标记为"确定"(OK). 在大多数浏览器中, 也可以通过按"关闭"(close)按钮将其关闭, 但这始终与“确定”按钮具有相同的作用. 查看样例警告框.

WebDriver可以从弹窗获取文本并接受或关闭这些警告.

//Click the link to activate the alert
driver.findElement(By.linkText("See an example alert")).click();

//Wait for the alert to be displayed and store it in a variable
Alert alert = wait.until(ExpectedConditions.alertIsPresent());

//Store the alert text in a variable
String text = alert.getText();

//Press the OK button
alert.accept();
  
# Click the link to activate the alert
driver.find_element(By.LINK_TEXT, "See an example alert").click()

# Wait for the alert to be displayed and store it in a variable
alert = wait.until(expected_conditions.alert_is_present())

# Store the alert text in a variable
text = alert.text

# Press the OK button
alert.accept()
  
//Click the link to activate the alert
driver.FindElement(By.LinkText("See an example alert")).Click();

//Wait for the alert to be displayed and store it in a variable
IAlert alert = wait.Until(ExpectedConditions.AlertIsPresent());

//Store the alert text in a variable
string text = alert.Text;

//Press the OK button
alert.Accept();
  
# Click the link to activate the alert
driver.find_element(:link_text, 'See an example alert').click

# Store the alert reference in a variable
alert = driver.switch_to.alert

# Store the alert text in a variable
alert_text = alert.text

# Press on OK button
alert.accept
  
//Click the link to activate the alert
await driver.findElement(By.linkText('See an example alert')).click();

// Wait for the alert to be displayed
await driver.wait(until.alertIsPresent());

// Store the alert in a variable
let alert = await driver.switchTo().alert();

//Store the alert text in a variable
let alertText = await alert.getText();

//Press the OK button
await alert.accept();

// Note: To use await, the above code should be inside an async function
  
//Click the link to activate the alert
driver.findElement(By.linkText("See an example alert")).click()

//Wait for the alert to be displayed and store it in a variable
val alert = wait.until(ExpectedConditions.alertIsPresent())

//Store the alert text in a variable
val text = alert.getText()

//Press the OK button
alert.accept()
  

Confirm 确认框

确认框类似于警告框, 不同之处在于用户还可以选择取消消息. 查看样例确认框.

此示例还呈现了警告的另一种实现:

//Click the link to activate the alert
driver.findElement(By.linkText("See a sample confirm")).click();

//Wait for the alert to be displayed
wait.until(ExpectedConditions.alertIsPresent());

//Store the alert in a variable
Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();

//Store the alert in a variable for reuse
String text = alert.getText();

//Press the Cancel button
alert.dismiss();
  
# Click the link to activate the alert
driver.find_element(By.LINK_TEXT, "See a sample confirm").click()

# Wait for the alert to be displayed
wait.until(expected_conditions.alert_is_present())

# Store the alert in a variable for reuse
alert = driver.switch_to.alert

# Store the alert text in a variable
text = alert.text

# Press the Cancel button
alert.dismiss()
  
//Click the link to activate the alert
driver.FindElement(By.LinkText("See a sample confirm")).Click();

//Wait for the alert to be displayed
wait.Until(ExpectedConditions.AlertIsPresent());

//Store the alert in a variable
IAlert alert = driver.SwitchTo().Alert();

//Store the alert in a variable for reuse
string text = alert.Text;

//Press the Cancel button
alert.Dismiss();
  
# Click the link to activate the alert
driver.find_element(:link_text, 'See a sample confirm').click

# Store the alert reference in a variable
alert = driver.switch_to.alert

# Store the alert text in a variable
alert_text = alert.text

# Press on Cancel button
alert.dismiss
  
//Click the link to activate the alert
await driver.findElement(By.linkText('See a sample confirm')).click();

// Wait for the alert to be displayed
await driver.wait(until.alertIsPresent());

// Store the alert in a variable
let alert = await driver.switchTo().alert();

//Store the alert text in a variable
let alertText = await alert.getText();

//Press the Cancel button
await alert.dismiss();

// Note: To use await, the above code should be inside an async function
  
//Click the link to activate the alert
driver.findElement(By.linkText("See a sample confirm")).click()

//Wait for the alert to be displayed
wait.until(ExpectedConditions.alertIsPresent())

//Store the alert in a variable
val alert = driver.switchTo().alert()

//Store the alert in a variable for reuse
val text = alert.text

//Press the Cancel button
alert.dismiss()
  

Prompt 提示框

提示框与确认框相似, 不同之处在于它们还包括文本输入. 与处理表单元素类似, 您可以使用WebDriver的sendKeys来填写响应. 这将完全替换占位符文本. 按下取消按钮将不会提交任何文本. 查看样例提示框.

//Click the link to activate the alert
driver.findElement(By.linkText("See a sample prompt")).click();

//Wait for the alert to be displayed and store it in a variable
Alert alert = wait.until(ExpectedConditions.alertIsPresent());

//Type your message
alert.sendKeys("Selenium");

//Press the OK button
alert.accept();
  
# Click the link to activate the alert
driver.find_element(By.LINK_TEXT, "See a sample prompt").click()

# Wait for the alert to be displayed
wait.until(expected_conditions.alert_is_present())

# Store the alert in a variable for reuse
alert = Alert(driver)

# Type your message
alert.send_keys("Selenium")

# Press the OK button
alert.accept()
  
//Click the link to activate the alert
driver.FindElement(By.LinkText("See a sample prompt")).Click();

//Wait for the alert to be displayed and store it in a variable
IAlert alert = wait.Until(ExpectedConditions.AlertIsPresent());

//Type your message
alert.SendKeys("Selenium");

//Press the OK button
alert.Accept();
  
# Click the link to activate the alert
driver.find_element(:link_text, 'See a sample prompt').click

# Store the alert reference in a variable
alert = driver.switch_to.alert

# Type a message
alert.send_keys("selenium")

# Press on Ok button
alert.accept
  
//Click the link to activate the alert
await driver.findElement(By.linkText('See a sample prompt')).click();

// Wait for the alert to be displayed
await driver.wait(until.alertIsPresent());

// Store the alert in a variable
let alert = await driver.switchTo().alert();

//Type your message
await alert.sendKeys("Selenium");

//Press the OK button
await alert.accept();

//Note: To use await, the above code should be inside an async function
  
//Click the link to activate the alert
driver.findElement(By.linkText("See a sample prompt")).click()

//Wait for the alert to be displayed and store it in a variable
val alert = wait.until(ExpectedConditions.alertIsPresent())

//Type your message
alert.sendKeys("Selenium")

//Press the OK button
alert.accept()
  

3 - 同cookies一起工作

Cookie是从网站发送并存储在您的计算机中的一小段数据. Cookies主要用于识别用户并加载存储的信息.

WebDriver API提供了一种使用内置的方法与Cookie进行交互:

这个方法常常用于将cookie添加到当前访问的上下文中. 添加Cookie仅接受一组已定义的可序列化JSON对象. 这里 是一个链接, 用于描述可接受的JSON键值的列表

首先, 您需要位于有效Cookie的域上. 如果您在开始与网站进行交互之前尝试预设cookie, 并且您的首页很大或需要一段时间才能加载完毕, 则可以选择在网站上找到一个较小的页面 (通常404页很小, 例如 http://example.com/some404page)

import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class addCookie {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
        try {
            driver.get("http://www.example.com");

            // Adds the cookie into current browser context
            driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie("key", "value"));
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

driver.get("http://www.example.com")

# Adds the cookie into current browser context
driver.add_cookie({"name": "key", "value": "value"})
  
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace AddCookie {
 class AddCookie {
  public static void Main(string[] args) {
   IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
   try {
    // Navigate to Url
    driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");

    // Adds the cookie into current browser context
    driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie("key", "value"));
   } finally {
    driver.Quit();
   }
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  driver.get 'https://www.example.com'
  
  # Adds the cookie into current browser context
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "key", value: "value")
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');
(async function example() {
  let driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('chrome')
    .build();

  await driver.get('https://www.example.com');
  // set a cookie on the current domain
  await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'key', value: 'value'});
  await driver.quit();
})();
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
    try {
        driver.get("https://example.com")

        // Adds the cookie into current browser context
        driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie("key", "value"))
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}  
  

此方法返回与cookie名称匹配的序列化cookie数据中所有关联的cookie.

import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class getCookieNamed {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
        try {
            driver.get("http://www.example.com");
            driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie("foo", "bar"));

            // Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo'
            Cookie cookie1 = driver.manage().getCookieNamed("foo");
            System.out.println(cookie1);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# Navigate to url
driver.get("http://www.example.com")

# Adds the cookie into current browser context
driver.add_cookie({"name": "foo", "value": "bar"})

# Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo'
print(driver.get_cookie("foo"))
  
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace GetCookieNamed {
 class GetCookieNamed {
  public static void Main(string[] args) {
   IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
   try {
    // Navigate to Url
    driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
    driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie("foo", "bar"));

    // Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo'
    var cookie = driver.Manage().Cookies.GetCookieNamed("foo");
    System.Console.WriteLine(cookie);
   } finally {
    driver.Quit();
   }
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  driver.get 'https://www.example.com'
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "foo", value: "bar")

  # Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo'
  puts driver.manage.cookie_named('foo')
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');

(async function getCookieByName() {
  let driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('chrome')
    .build();

  await driver.get('https://www.example.com');
  // set a cookie on the current domain
  await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'foo', value: 'bar'});
  // Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo'
  await driver.manage().getCookie('foo').then(function (cookie) {
    console.log('cookie details => ', cookie);
  });
  await driver.quit();
})();
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
    try {
        driver.get("https://example.com")
        driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie("foo", "bar"))

        // Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo'
        val cookie = driver.manage().getCookieNamed("foo")
        println(cookie)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}  
  

获取全部 Cookies

此方法会针对当前访问上下文返回“成功的序列化cookie数据”. 如果浏览器不再可用, 则返回错误.

import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import java.util.Set;

public class getAllCookies {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
        try {
            driver.get("http://www.example.com");
            // Add few cookies
            driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie("test1", "cookie1"));
            driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie("test2", "cookie2"));

            // Get All available cookies
            Set<Cookie> cookies = driver.manage().getCookies();
            System.out.println(cookies);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# Navigate to url
driver.get("http://www.example.com")

driver.add_cookie({"name": "test1", "value": "cookie1"})
driver.add_cookie({"name": "test2", "value": "cookie2"})

# Get all available cookies
print(driver.get_cookies())
  
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace GetAllCookies {
 class GetAllCookies {
  public static void Main(string[] args) {
   IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
   try {
    // Navigate to Url
    driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
    driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie("test1", "cookie1"));
    driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie("test2", "cookie2"));

    // Get All available cookies
    var cookies = driver.Manage().Cookies.AllCookies;
   } finally {
    driver.Quit();
   }
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  driver.get 'https://www.example.com'
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "test1", value: "cookie1")
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "test2", value: "cookie2")

  # Get all available cookies
  puts driver.manage.all_cookies
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');

(async function getAllCookies() {
  let driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('chrome')
    .build();

  await driver.get('https://www.example.com');
  // Add few cookies
  await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'test1', value:'cookie1'});
  await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'test2', value:'cookie2'});
  // Get all Available cookies
  await driver.manage().getCookies().then(function (cookies) {
    console.log('cookie details => ', cookies);
  });
  await driver.quit()
})();
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
    try {
        driver.get("https://example.com")
        driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie("test1", "cookie1"))
        driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie("test2", "cookie2"))

        // Get All available cookies
        val cookies = driver.manage().cookies
        println(cookies)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}  
  

此方法删除与提供的cookie名称匹配的cookie数据.

import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class deleteCookie {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
        try {
            driver.get("http://www.example.com");
            driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie("test1", "cookie1"));
            Cookie cookie1 = new Cookie("test2", "cookie2");
            driver.manage().addCookie(cookie1);

            // delete a cookie with name 'test1'
            driver.manage().deleteCookieNamed("test1");

            /*
             Selenium Java bindings also provides a way to delete
             cookie by passing cookie object of current browsing context
             */
            driver.manage().deleteCookie(cookie1);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver
driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# Navigate to url
driver.get("http://www.example.com")
driver.add_cookie({"name": "test1", "value": "cookie1"})
driver.add_cookie({"name": "test2", "value": "cookie2"})

# Delete a cookie with name 'test1'
driver.delete_cookie("test1")
  
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace DeleteCookie {
 class DeleteCookie {
  public static void Main(string[] args) {
   IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
   try {
    // Navigate to Url
    driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
    driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie("test1", "cookie1"));
    var cookie = new Cookie("test2", "cookie2");
    driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(cookie);

    // delete a cookie with name 'test1'	
    driver.Manage().Cookies.DeleteCookieNamed("test1");

    // Selenium .net bindings also provides a way to delete
    // cookie by passing cookie object of current browsing context
    driver.Manage().Cookies.DeleteCookie(cookie);
   } finally {
    driver.Quit();
   }
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  driver.get 'https://www.example.com'
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "test1", value: "cookie1")
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "test2", value: "cookie2")

  # delete a cookie with name 'test1'
  driver.manage.delete_cookie('test1')
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');

(async function deleteCookie() {
  let driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('chrome')
    .build();
  try {
    await driver.get('https://www.example.com');
    // Add few cookies
    await driver.manage().addCookie({name: 'test1', value: 'cookie1'});
    await driver.manage().addCookie({name: 'test2', value: 'cookie2'});

    // Delete a cookie with name 'test1'
    await driver.manage().deleteCookie('test1');

    // Get all Available cookies
    await driver.manage().getCookies().then(function (cookies) {
      console.log('cookie details => ', cookies);
    });
    await driver.quit();
  } catch (e){
    console.log(e)
  }
})();

import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
    try {
        driver.get("https://example.com")
        driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie("test1", "cookie1"))
        val cookie1 = Cookie("test2", "cookie2")
        driver.manage().addCookie(cookie1)

        // delete a cookie with name 'test1'
        driver.manage().deleteCookieNamed("test1")
        
        // delete cookie by passing cookie object of current browsing context.
        driver.manage().deleteCookie(cookie1)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}  
  

删除所有 Cookies

此方法删除当前访问上下文的所有cookie.

import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class deleteAllCookies {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
        try {
            driver.get("http://www.example.com");
            driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie("test1", "cookie1"));
            driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie("test2", "cookie2"));

            // deletes all cookies
            driver.manage().deleteAllCookies();
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver
driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# Navigate to url
driver.get("http://www.example.com")
driver.add_cookie({"name": "test1", "value": "cookie1"})
driver.add_cookie({"name": "test2", "value": "cookie2"})

#  Deletes all cookies
driver.delete_all_cookies()
  
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace DeleteAllCookies {
 class DeleteAllCookies {
  public static void Main(string[] args) {
   IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
   try {
    // Navigate to Url
    driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
    driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie("test1", "cookie1"));
    driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie("test2", "cookie2"));

    // deletes all cookies
    driver.Manage().Cookies.DeleteAllCookies();
   } finally {
    driver.Quit();
   }
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  driver.get 'https://www.example.com'
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "test1", value: "cookie1")
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "test2", value: "cookie2")

  # deletes all cookies
  driver.manage.delete_all_cookies
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');

(async function example() {
  let driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('chrome')
    .build();

  try {
    await driver.get('https://www.example.com');
    // Add few cookies
    await driver.manage().addCookie({name: 'test1', value: 'cookie1'});
    await driver.manage().addCookie({name: 'test2', value: 'cookie2'});
    // Delete all cookies
    await driver.manage().deleteAllCookies();
    await driver.quit();
  } catch(e) {
    console.log(e)
  }
})();
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
    try {
        driver.get("https://example.com")
        driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie("test1", "cookie1"))
        driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie("test2", "cookie2"))

        // deletes all cookies
        driver.manage().deleteAllCookies()
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

Same-Site Cookie属性

此属性允许用户引导浏览器控制cookie, 是否与第三方站点发起的请求一起发送. 引入其是为了防止CSRF(跨站请求伪造)攻击.

Same-Site cookie属性接受以下两种参数作为指令

Strict:

当sameSite属性设置为 Strict, cookie不会与来自第三方网站的请求一起发送.

Lax:

当您将cookie sameSite属性设置为 Lax, cookie将与第三方网站发起的GET请求一起发送.

注意: 到目前为止, 此功能已在Chrome(80+版本), Firefox(79+版本)中提供, 并适用于Selenium 4以及更高版本.

import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class cookieTest {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
    try {
      driver.get("http://www.example.com");
      Cookie cookie = new Cookie.Builder("key", "value").sameSite("Strict").build();
      Cookie cookie1 = new Cookie.Builder("key", "value").sameSite("Lax").build();
      driver.manage().addCookie(cookie);
      driver.manage().addCookie(cookie1);
      System.out.println(cookie.getSameSite());
      System.out.println(cookie1.getSameSite());
    } finally {
      driver.quit();
    }
  }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

driver.get("http://www.example.com")
# Adds the cookie into current browser context with sameSite 'Strict' (or) 'Lax'
driver.add_cookie({"name": "foo", "value": "value", 'sameSite': 'Strict'})
driver.add_cookie({"name": "foo1", "value": "value", 'sameSite': 'Lax'})
cookie1 = driver.get_cookie('foo')
cookie2 = driver.get_cookie('foo1')
print(cookie1)
print(cookie2)
  
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace SameSiteCookie {
  class SameSiteCookie {
    static void Main(string[] args) {
      IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
      try {
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("http://www.example.com");

        var cookie1Dictionary = new System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary<string, object>() {
          { "name", "test1" }, { "value", "cookie1" }, { "sameSite", "Strict" } };
        var cookie1 = Cookie.FromDictionary(cookie1Dictionary);

        var cookie2Dictionary = new System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary<string, object>() {
          { "name", "test2" }, { "value", "cookie2" }, { "sameSite", "Lax" } };
        var cookie2 = Cookie.FromDictionary(cookie2Dictionary);

        driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(cookie1);
        driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(cookie2);

        System.Console.WriteLine(cookie1.SameSite);
        System.Console.WriteLine(cookie2.SameSite);
      } finally {
        driver.Quit();
      }
    }
  }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  driver.get 'https://www.example.com'
  # Adds the cookie into current browser context with sameSite 'Strict' (or) 'Lax'
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "foo", value: "bar", same_site: "Strict")
  driver.manage.add_cookie(name: "foo1", value: "bar", same_site: "Lax")
  puts driver.manage.cookie_named('foo')
  puts driver.manage.cookie_named('foo1')
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');

(async function sameSiteCookieExample() {
  let driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('chrome')
    .build();

  try {
    await driver.get('https://www.example.com');
    // set a cookie on the current domain with sameSite 'Strict' (or) 'Lax'
    await driver.manage().addCookie({name: 'key', value: 'value', sameSite: 'Strict'});
    await driver.manage().addCookie({name: 'key', value: 'value', sameSite: 'Lax'});
    await driver.quit();
  } catch (e) {
    console.log(e);
  }
})();
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
    try {
        driver.get("http://www.example.com")
        val cookie = Cookie.Builder("key", "value").sameSite("Strict").build()
        val cookie1 = Cookie.Builder("key", "value").sameSite("Lax").build()
        driver.manage().addCookie(cookie)
        driver.manage().addCookie(cookie1)
        println(cookie.getSameSite())
        println(cookie1.getSameSite())
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
} 
  

4 - 与iFrames和frames一起工作

框架是一种现在已被弃用的方法,用于从同一域中的多个文档构建站点布局。除非你使用的是 HTML5 之前的 webapp,否则你不太可能与他们合作。内嵌框架允许插入来自完全不同领域的文档,并且仍然经常使用。

如果您需要使用框架或 iframe, WebDriver 允许您以相同的方式使用它们。考虑 iframe 中的一个按钮。 如果我们使用浏览器开发工具检查元素,我们可能会看到以下内容:

<div id="modal">
  <iframe id="buttonframe"name="myframe"src="https://seleniumhq.github.io">
   <button>Click here</button>
 </iframe>
</div>

如果不是 iframe,我们可能会使用如下方式点击按钮:

// 这不会工作
driver.findElement(By.tagName("button")).click();
    # 这不会工作
driver.find_element(By.TAG_NAME, 'button').click()
// 这不会工作
driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button")).Click();
    # 这不会工作
driver.find_element(:tag_name,'button').click
// 这不会工作
await driver.findElement(By.css('button')).click();
// 这不会工作
driver.findElement(By.tagName("button")).click()

但是,如果 iframe 之外没有按钮,那么您可能会得到一个 no such element 无此元素 的错误。 这是因为 Selenium 只知道顶层文档中的元素。为了与按钮进行交互,我们需要首先切换到框架, 这与切换窗口的方式类似。WebDriver 提供了三种切换到帧的方法。

使用 WebElement

使用 WebElement 进行切换是最灵活的选择。您可以使用首选的选择器找到框架并切换到它。

// 存储网页元素
WebElement iframe = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("#modal>iframe"));

// 切换到 frame
driver.switchTo().frame(iframe);

// 现在可以点击按钮
driver.findElement(By.tagName("button")).click();
    # 存储网页元素
iframe = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR, "#modal > iframe")

    # 切换到选择的 iframe
driver.switch_to.frame(iframe)

    # 单击按钮
driver.find_element(By.TAG_NAME, 'button').click()
// 存储网页元素
IWebElement iframe = driver.FindElement(By.CssSelector("#modal>iframe"));

// 切换到 frame
driver.SwitchTo().Frame(iframe);

// 现在可以点击按钮
driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button")).Click();
    # Store iframe web element
iframe = driver.find_element(:css,'#modal> iframe')

    # 切换到 frame
driver.switch_to.frame iframe

    # 单击按钮
driver.find_element(:tag_name,'button').click
// 存储网页元素
const iframe = driver.findElement(By.css('#modal> iframe'));

// 切换到 frame
await driver.switchTo().frame(iframe);

// 现在可以点击按钮
await driver.findElement(By.css('button')).click();
// 存储网页元素
val iframe = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("#modal>iframe"))

// 切换到 frame
driver.switchTo().frame(iframe)

// 现在可以点击按钮
driver.findElement(By.tagName("button")).click()

使用 name 或 id

如果您的 frame 或 iframe 具有 id 或 name 属性,则可以使用该属性。如果名称或 id 在页面上不是唯一的, 那么将切换到找到的第一个。

// 使用 ID
driver.switchTo().frame("buttonframe");

// 或者使用 name 代替
driver.switchTo().frame("myframe");

// 现在可以点击按钮
driver.findElement(By.tagName("button")).click();
    # 通过 id 切换框架
driver.switch_to.frame('buttonframe')

    # 单击按钮
driver.find_element(By.TAG_NAME, 'button').click()
// 使用 ID
driver.SwitchTo().Frame("buttonframe");

// 或者使用 name 代替
driver.SwitchTo().Frame("myframe");

// 现在可以点击按钮
driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button")).Click();
    # Switch by ID
driver.switch_to.frame 'buttonframe'

    # 单击按钮
driver.find_element(:tag_name,'button').click
// 使用 ID
await driver.switchTo().frame('buttonframe');

// 或者使用 name 代替
await driver.switchTo().frame('myframe');

// 现在可以点击按钮
await driver.findElement(By.css('button')).click();
// 使用 ID
driver.switchTo().frame("buttonframe")

// 或者使用 name 代替
driver.switchTo().frame("myframe")

// 现在可以点击按钮
driver.findElement(By.tagName("button")).click()

使用索引

还可以使用frame的索引, 例如可以使用JavaScript中的 window.frames 进行查询.

// 切换到第 2 个框架
driver.switchTo().frame(1);
    # 切换到第 2 个框架
driver.switch_to.frame(1)
// 切换到第 2 个框架
driver.SwitchTo().Frame(1);
    # 基于索引切换到第 2 个 iframe
iframe = driver.find_elements_by_tag_name('iframe')[1]

    # 切换到选择的 iframe
driver.switch_to.frame(iframe)
// 切换到第 2 个框架
await driver.switchTo().frame(1);
// 切换到第 2 个框架
driver.switchTo().frame(1)

离开框架

离开 iframe 或 frameset,切换回默认内容,如下所示:

// 回到顶层
driver.switchTo().defaultContent();
    # 切回到默认内容
driver.switch_to.default_content()
// 回到顶层
driver.SwitchTo().DefaultContent();
    # 回到顶层
driver.switch_to.default_content
// 回到顶层
await driver.switchTo().defaultContent();
// 回到顶层
driver.switchTo().defaultContent()

5 - 同窗口和标签一起工作

窗口和标签页

WebDriver 没有区分窗口和标签页。如果你的站点打开了一个新标签页或窗口,Selenium 将允许您使用窗口句柄来处理它。 每个窗口都有一个唯一的标识符,该标识符在单个会话中保持持久性。你可以使用以下方法获得当前窗口的窗口句柄:

driver.getWindowHandle();
driver.current_window_handle
driver.CurrentWindowHandle;
driver.window_handle
await driver.getWindowHandle();
driver.windowHandle

切换窗口或标签页

单击在 <a href=“https://seleniumhq.github.io"target="_blank”>新窗口 中打开链接, 则屏幕会聚焦在新窗口或新标签页上,但 WebDriver 不知道操作系统认为哪个窗口是活动的。 要使用新窗口,您需要切换到它。 如果只有两个选项卡或窗口被打开,并且你知道从哪个窗口开始, 则你可以遍历 WebDriver, 通过排除法可以看到两个窗口或选项卡,然后切换到你需要的窗口或选项卡。

不过,Selenium 4 提供了一个新的 api NewWindow 它创建一个新选项卡 (或) 新窗口并自动切换到它。

// 存储原始窗口的 ID
String originalWindow = driver.getWindowHandle();

// 检查一下,我们还没有打开其他的窗口
assert driver.getWindowHandles().size() == 1;

// 点击在新窗口中打开的链接
driver.findElement(By.linkText("new window")).click();

// 等待新窗口或标签页
wait.until(numberOfWindowsToBe(2));

// 循环执行,直到找到一个新的窗口句柄
for (String windowHandle : driver.getWindowHandles()) {if(!originalWindow.contentEquals(windowHandle)) {driver.switchTo().window(windowHandle);
break;
}
}

// 等待新标签完成加载内容
wait.until(titleIs("Selenium documentation"));
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC

    # 启动驱动程序
with webdriver.Firefox() as driver:
    # 打开网址
driver.get("https://seleniumhq.github.io")

    # 设置等待
    wait = WebDriverWait(driver, 10)

    # 存储原始窗口的 ID
    original_window = driver.current_window_handle

    # 检查一下,我们还没有打开其他的窗口
    assert len(driver.window_handles) == 1

    # 单击在新窗口中打开的链接
    driver.find_element(By.LINK_TEXT, "new window").click()

    # 等待新窗口或标签页
    wait.until(EC.number_of_windows_to_be(2))

    # 循环执行,直到找到一个新的窗口句柄
    for window_handle in driver.window_handles:
        if window_handle != original_window:
            driver.switch_to.window(window_handle)
            break

    # 等待新标签页完成加载内容
    wait.until(EC.title_is("SeleniumHQ Browser Automation"))
// 存储原始窗口的 ID
string originalWindow = driver.CurrentWindowHandle;

// 检查一下,我们还没有打开其他的窗口
Assert.AreEqual(driver.WindowHandles.Count, 1);

// 单击在新窗口中打开的链接
driver.FindElement(By.LinkText("new window")).Click();

// 等待新窗口或标签页
wait.Until(wd => wd.WindowHandles.Count == 2);

// 循环执行,直到找到一个新的窗口句柄
foreach(string window in driver.WindowHandles)
{if(originalWindow != window)
{driver.SwitchTo().Window(window);
break;
}
}
// 等待新标签页完成加载内容
wait.Until(wd => wd.Title == "Selenium documentation");
    # 存储原始窗口的 ID
original_window = driver.window_handle

    #检查一下,我们还没有打开其他的窗口
assert(driver.window_handles.length == 1,'Expected one window')

    #点击在新窗口中打开的链接
driver.find_element(link:'new window').click

    #等待新窗口或标签页
wait.until {driver.window_handles.length == 2}

    #循环执行,直到找到一个新的窗口句柄
driver.window_handles.each do |handle|
if handle != original_window
driver.switch_to.window handle
break
end
end

    #等待新标签页完成加载内容
wait.until {driver.title =='Selenium documentation'}
// 存储原始窗口的 ID
const originalWindow = await driver.getWindowHandle();

// 检查一下,我们还没有打开其他的窗口
assert((await driver.getAllWindowHandles()).length === 1);

// 点击在新窗口中打开的链接
await driver.findElement(By.linkText('new window')).click();

// 等待新窗口或标签页
await driver.wait(async () => (await driver.getAllWindowHandles()).length === 2,
10000
);

// 循环执行,直到找到一个新的窗口句柄
const windows = await driver.getAllWindowHandles();
windows.forEach(async handle => {if (handle !== originalWindow) {await driver.switchTo().window(handle);
}
});

// 等待新标签页完成加载内容
await driver.wait(until.titleIs('Selenium documentation'), 10000);
// 存储原始窗口的 ID
val originalWindow = driver.getWindowHandle()

// 检查一下,我们还没有打开其他的窗口
assert(driver.getWindowHandles().size() === 1)

// 点击在新窗口中打开的链接
driver.findElement(By.linkText("new window")).click()

// 等待新窗口或标签页
wait.until(numberOfWindowsToBe(2))

// 循环执行,直到找到一个新的窗口句柄
for (windowHandle in driver.getWindowHandles()) {
if (!originalWindow.contentEquals(windowHandle)) {
driver.switchTo().window(windowHandle)
break
}
}

// 等待新标签页完成加载内容
wait.until(titleIs("Selenium documentation"))

创建新窗口(或)新标签页并且切换

创建一个新窗口 (或) 标签页,屏幕焦点将聚焦在新窗口或标签在上。您不需要切换到新窗口 (或) 标签页。如果除了新窗口之外, 您打开了两个以上的窗口 (或) 标签页,您可以通过遍历 WebDriver 看到两个窗口或选项卡,并切换到非原始窗口。

注意: 该特性适用于 Selenium 4 及其后续版本。

// 打开新标签页并切换到新标签页
driver.switchTo().newWindow(WindowType.TAB);

// 打开一个新窗口并切换到新窗口
driver.switchTo().newWindow(WindowType.WINDOW);
    # 打开新标签页并切换到新标签页
driver.switch_to.new_window('tab')

    # 打开一个新窗口并切换到新窗口
driver.switch_to.new_window('window')
// 打开新标签页并切换到新标签页
driver.SwitchTo().NewWindow(WindowType.Tab)

// 打开一个新窗口并切换到新窗口
driver.SwitchTo().NewWindow(WindowType.Window)
    # 注意:ruby 中的 new_window 只打开一个新标签页(或)窗口,不会自动切换
    # 用户必须切换到新选项卡 (或) 新窗口

    # 打开新标签页并切换到新标签页
driver.manage.new_window(:tab)

    # 打开一个新窗口并切换到新窗口
driver.manage.new_window(:window)
// 打开新标签页并切换到新标签页
await driver.switchTo().newWindow('tab');

// 打开一个新窗口并切换到新窗口
await driver.switchTo().newWindow('window');
// 打开新标签页并切换到新标签页
driver.switchTo().newWindow(WindowType.TAB)

// 打开一个新窗口并切换到新窗口
driver.switchTo().newWindow(WindowType.WINDOW)

关闭窗口或标签页

当你完成了一个窗口或标签页的工作时,_并且_它不是浏览器中最后一个打开的窗口或标签页时,你应该关闭它并切换回你之前使用的窗口。 假设您遵循了前一节中的代码示例,您将把前一个窗口句柄存储在一个变量中。把这些放在一起,你会得到:

//关闭标签页或窗口
driver.close();

//切回到之前的标签页或窗口
driver.switchTo().window(originalWindow);
    #关闭标签页或窗口
driver.close()

    #切回到之前的标签页或窗口
driver.switch_to.window(original_window)
//关闭标签页或窗口
driver.Close();

//切回到之前的标签页或窗口
driver.SwitchTo().Window(originalWindow);
    #关闭标签页或窗口
driver.close

    #切回到之前的标签页或窗口
driver.switch_to.window original_window
//关闭标签页或窗口
await driver.close();

//切回到之前的标签页或窗口
await driver.switchTo().window(originalWindow);
//关闭标签页或窗口
driver.close()

//切回到之前的标签页或窗口
driver.switchTo().window(originalWindow)

如果在关闭一个窗口后忘记切换回另一个窗口句柄,WebDriver 将在当前关闭的页面上执行,并触发一个 No Such Window Exception 无此窗口异常。必须切换回有效的窗口句柄才能继续执行。

在会话结束时退出浏览器

当你完成了浏览器会话,你应该调用 quit 退出,而不是 close 关闭:

driver.quit();
driver.quit()
driver.Quit();
driver.quit
await driver.quit();
driver.quit()

  • 退出将会
    • 关闭所有与 WebDriver 会话相关的窗口和选项卡
    • 结束浏览器进程
    • 结束后台驱动进程
    • 通知 Selenium Grid 浏览器不再使用,以便可以由另一个会话使用它(如果您正在使用 Selenium Grid)

调用 quit() 失败将留下额外的后台进程和端口运行在机器上,这可能在以后导致一些问题。

有的测试框架提供了一些方法和注释,您可以在测试结束时放入 teardown() 方法中。

/**
* 使用 JUnit 的例子
* https://junit.org/junit5/docs/current/api/org/junit/jupiter/api/AfterAll.html
  */
  @AfterAll
  public static void tearDown() {driver.quit();
  }
  
    # unittest teardown
    # https://docs.python.org/3/library/unittest.html?highlight=teardown#unittest.TestCase.tearDown
def tearDown(self):
self.driver.quit()
/*
使用 Visual Studio 的 UnitTesting 的例子
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/microsoft.visualstudio.testtools.unittesting.aspx
*/
[TestCleanup]
public void TearDown()
{driver.Quit();
}
    # UnitTest Teardown
    # https://www.rubydoc.info/github/test-unit/test-unit/Test/Unit/TestCase
def teardown
@driver.quit
end
/**
* 使用 Mocha 的例子
* https://mochajs.org/#hooks
  */
  after('Tear down', async function () {await driver.quit();
  });
  
/**
* 使用 JUnit 的例子
* https://junit.org/junit5/docs/current/api/org/junit/jupiter/api/AfterAll.html
  */
  @AfterAll
  fun tearDown() {driver.quit()
  }
  

如果不在测试上下文中运行 WebDriver,您可以考虑使用 try / finally,这是大多数语言都提供的, 这样一个异常处理仍然可以清理 WebDriver 会话。

try {//WebDriver 代码…} finally {driver.quit();
}
try:
    #WebDriver 代码…
finally:
driver.quit()
try {//WebDriver 代码…} finally {driver.Quit();
}
begin
    #WebDriver 代码…
ensure
driver.quit
end
try {//WebDriver 代码…} finally {await driver.quit();
}
try {//WebDriver 代码…} finally {driver.quit()
}

Python 的 WebDriver 现在支持 Python 上下文管理器,当使用 with 关键字时,可以在执行结束时自动退出驱动程序。

with webdriver.Firefox() as driver:
  # WebDriver 代码…

# 在此缩进位置后 WebDriver 会自动退出

窗口管理

屏幕分辨率会影响 web 应用程序的呈现方式,因此 WebDriver 提供了移动和调整浏览器窗口大小的机制。

获取窗口大小

获取浏览器窗口的大小(以像素为单位)。

// 分别获取每个尺寸
int width = driver.manage().window().getSize().getWidth();
int height = driver.manage().window().getSize().getHeight();

// 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
Dimension size = driver.manage().window().getSize();
int width1 = size.getWidth();
int height1 = size.getHeight();
    # 分别获取每个尺寸
width = driver.get_window_size().get("width")
height = driver.get_window_size().get("height")

    # 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
size = driver.get_window_size()
width1 = size.get("width")
height1 = size.get("height")
// 分别获取每个尺寸
int width = driver.Manage().Window.Size.Width;
int height = driver.Manage().Window.Size.Height;

// 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
System.Drawing.Size size = driver.Manage().Window.Size;
int width1 = size.Width;
int height1 = size.Height;
    # 分别获取每个尺寸
width = driver.manage.window.size.width
height = driver.manage.window.size.height

    # 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
size = driver.manage.window.size
width1 = size.width
height1 = size.height
// 分别获取每个尺寸
const {width, height} = await driver.manage().window().getRect();

// 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
const rect = await driver.manage().window().getRect();
const width1 = rect.width;
const height1 = rect.height;
// 分别获取每个尺寸
val width = driver.manage().window().size.width
val height = driver.manage().window().size.height

// 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
val size = driver.manage().window().size
val width1 = size.width
val height1 = size.height

设置窗口大小

恢复窗口并设置窗口大小。

driver.manage().window().setSize(new Dimension(1024, 768));
driver.set_window_size(1024, 768)
driver.Manage().Window.Size = new Size(1024, 768);
driver.manage.window.resize_to(1024,768)
await driver.manage().window().setRect({width: 1024, height: 768});
driver.manage().window().size = Dimension(1024, 768)

得到窗口的位置

获取浏览器窗口左上角的坐标。

// 分别获取每个尺寸
int x = driver.manage().window().getPosition().getX();
int y = driver.manage().window().getPosition().getY();

// 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
Point position = driver.manage().window().getPosition();
int x1 = position.getX();
int y1 = position.getY();
    # 分别获取每个尺寸
x = driver.get_window_position().get('x')
y = driver.get_window_position().get('y')

    # 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
position = driver.get_window_position()
x1 = position.get('x')
y1 = position.get('y')
// 分别获取每个尺寸
int x = driver.Manage().Window.Position.X;
int y = driver.Manage().Window.Position.Y;

// 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
Point position = driver.Manage().Window.Position;
int x1 = position.X;
int y1 = position.Y;
    #Access each dimension individually
x = driver.manage.window.position.x
y = driver.manage.window.position.y

    # Or store the dimensions and query them later
rect  = driver.manage.window.rect
x1 = rect.x
y1 = rect.y
// 分别获取每个尺寸
const {x, y} = await driver.manage().window().getRect();

// 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
const rect = await driver.manage().window().getRect();
const x1 = rect.x;
const y1 = rect.y;
// 分别获取每个尺寸
val x = driver.manage().window().position.x
val y = driver.manage().window().position.y

// 或者存储尺寸并在以后查询它们
val position = driver.manage().window().position
val x1 = position.x
val y1 = position.y

设置窗口位置

将窗口移动到设定的位置。

// 将窗口移动到主显示器的左上角
driver.manage().window().setPosition(new Point(0, 0));
    # 将窗口移动到主显示器的左上角
driver.set_window_position(0, 0)
// 将窗口移动到主显示器的左上角
driver.Manage().Window.Position = new Point(0, 0);
driver.manage.window.move_to(0,0)
// 将窗口移动到主显示器的左上角
await driver.manage().window().setRect({x: 0, y: 0});
// 将窗口移动到主显示器的左上角
driver.manage().window().position = Point(0,0)

最大化窗口

扩大窗口。对于大多数操作系统,窗口将填满屏幕,而不会阻挡操作系统自己的菜单和工具栏。

driver.manage().window().maximize();
driver.maximize_window()
driver.Manage().Window.Maximize();
driver.manage.window.maximize
await driver.manage().window().maximize();
driver.manage().window().maximize()

最小化窗口

最小化当前浏览上下文的窗口. 这种命令的精准行为将作用于各个特定的窗口管理器.

最小化窗口通常将窗口隐藏在系统托盘中.

注意: 此功能适用于Selenium 4以及更高版本.

driver.manage().window().minimize();
driver.minimize_window()
driver.Manage().Window.Minimize();
driver.manage.window.minimize
await driver.manage().window().minimize();
driver.manage().window().minimize()

全屏窗口

填充整个屏幕,类似于在大多数浏览器中按下 F11。

driver.manage().window().fullscreen();
driver.fullscreen_window()
driver.Manage().Window.FullScreen();
driver.manage.window.full_screen
await driver.manage().window().fullscreen();
driver.manage().window().fullscreen()

屏幕截图

用于捕获当前浏览上下文的屏幕截图. WebDriver端点 屏幕截图 返回以Base64格式编码的屏幕截图.

import org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import java.io.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.*;

public class SeleniumTakeScreenshot {
public static void main(String args[]) throws IOException {
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.get("http://www.example.com");
File scrFile = ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, new File("./image.png"));
driver.quit();
}
}
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

    # Navigate to url
driver.get("http://www.example.com")

    # Returns and base64 encoded string into image
driver.save_screenshot('./image.png')

driver.quit()
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Support.UI;

    var driver = new ChromeDriver();
    driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("http://www.example.com");
    Screenshot screenshot = (driver as ITakesScreenshot).GetScreenshot();
    screenshot.SaveAsFile("screenshot.png", ScreenshotImageFormat.Png); // Format values are Bmp, Gif, Jpeg, Png, Tiff
require 'selenium-webdriver'
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
driver.get 'https://example.com/'

    # Takes and Stores the screenshot in specified path
driver.save_screenshot('./image.png')

end
let {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');
let fs = require('fs');

(async function example() {
let driver = await new Builder()
.forBrowser('chrome')
.build();

    await driver.get('https://www.example.com');
    // Returns base64 encoded string
    let encodedString = await driver.takeScreenshot();
    await fs.writeFileSync('./image.png', encodedString, 'base64');
    await driver.quit();
}())
import com.oracle.tools.packager.IOUtils.copyFile
import org.openqa.selenium.*
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import java.io.File

fun main(){
val driver =  ChromeDriver()
driver.get("https://www.example.com")
val scrFile = (driver as TakesScreenshot).getScreenshotAs<File>(OutputType.FILE)
copyFile(scrFile, File("./image.png"))
driver.quit()
}

元素屏幕截图

用于捕获当前浏览上下文的元素的屏幕截图. WebDriver端点 屏幕截图 返回以Base64格式编码的屏幕截图.

import org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils;
import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;

public class SeleniumelementTakeScreenshot {
public static void main(String args[]) throws IOException {
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.get("https://www.example.com");
WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("h1"));
File scrFile = element.getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, new File("./image.png"));
driver.quit();
}
}
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

    # Navigate to url
driver.get("http://www.example.com")

ele = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR, 'h1')

    # Returns and base64 encoded string into image
ele.screenshot('./image.png')

driver.quit()
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Support.UI;

    // Webdriver
    var driver = new ChromeDriver();
    driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("http://www.example.com");

    // Fetch element using FindElement
    var webElement = driver.FindElement(By.CssSelector("h1"));

    // Screenshot for the element
    var elementScreenshot = (webElement as ITakesScreenshot).GetScreenshot();
    elementScreenshot.SaveAsFile("screenshot_of_element.png");
    # Works with Selenium4-alpha7 Ruby bindings and above
require 'selenium-webdriver'
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
driver.get 'https://example.com/'
ele = driver.find_element(:css, 'h1')

    # Takes and Stores the element screenshot in specified path
ele.save_screenshot('./image.jpg')
end
const {Builder, By} = require('selenium-webdriver');
let fs = require('fs');

(async function example() {
let driver = await new Builder()
.forBrowser('chrome')
.build();

await driver.get('https://www.example.com');
let ele = await driver.findElement(By.css("h1"));
// Captures the element screenshot
let encodedString = await ele.takeScreenshot(true);
await fs.writeFileSync('./image.png', encodedString, 'base64');
await driver.quit();
}())
import org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.*
import java.io.File

fun main() {
val driver = ChromeDriver()
driver.get("https://www.example.com")
val element = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("h1"))
val scrFile: File = element.getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE)
FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, File("./image.png"))
driver.quit()
}

执行脚本

在当前frame或者窗口的上下文中,执行JavaScript代码片段.

//Creating the JavascriptExecutor interface object by Type casting
JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor)driver;
//Button Element
WebElement button =driver.findElement(By.name("btnLogin"));
//Executing JavaScript to click on element
js.executeScript("arguments[0].click();", button);
//Get return value from script
String text = (String) js.executeScript("return arguments[0].innerText", button);
//Executing JavaScript directly
js.executeScript("console.log('hello world')");
    # Stores the header element
header = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR, "h1")

    # Executing JavaScript to capture innerText of header element
driver.execute_script('return arguments[0].innerText', header)
//creating Chromedriver instance
	IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
	//Creating the JavascriptExecutor interface object by Type casting
	IJavaScriptExecutor js = (IJavaScriptExecutor) driver;
	//Button Element
	IWebElement button = driver.FindElement(By.Name("btnLogin"));
	//Executing JavaScript to click on element
	js.ExecuteScript("arguments[0].click();", button);
	//Get return value from script
	String text = (String)js.ExecuteScript("return arguments[0].innerText", button);
	//Executing JavaScript directly
	js.ExecuteScript("console.log('hello world')");
    # Stores the header element
header = driver.find_element(css: 'h1')

    # Get return value from script
result = driver.execute_script("return arguments[0].innerText", header)

    # Executing JavaScript directly
driver.execute_script("alert('hello world')")
// Stores the header element
let header = await driver.findElement(By.css('h1'));

// Executing JavaScript to capture innerText of header element
let text = await driver.executeScript('return arguments[0].innerText', header);
// Stores the header element
val header = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("h1"))

// Get return value from script
val result = driver.executeScript("return arguments[0].innerText", header)

// Executing JavaScript directly
driver.executeScript("alert('hello world')")

打印页面

打印当前浏览器内的页面

注意: 此功能需要无头模式下的Chromium浏览器

import org.openqa.selenium.print.PrintOptions;

    driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev");
    printer = (PrintsPage) driver;

    PrintOptions printOptions = new PrintOptions();
    printOptions.setPageRanges("1-2");

    Pdf pdf = printer.print(printOptions);
    String content = pdf.getContent();
from selenium.webdriver.common.print_page_options import PrintOptions

    print_options = PrintOptions()
    print_options.page_ranges = ['1-2']

    driver.get("printPage.html")

    base64code = driver.print_page(print_options)
// code sample not available please raise a PR
driver.navigate_to 'https://www.selenium.dev'

    base64encodedContent = driver.print_page(orientation: 'landscape')
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');
const chrome = require('selenium-webdriver/chrome');
let opts = new chrome.Options();
let fs = require('fs');
(async function example() {
let driver = new Builder()
.forBrowser('chrome')
.setChromeOptions(opts.headless())
.build();
await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev');
try {
let base64 = await driver.printPage({pageRanges:["1-2"]});
await fs.writeFileSync('./test.pdf', base64, 'base64');
} catch (e) {
console.log(e)
}
await driver.quit();
driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev")
val printer = driver as PrintsPage

val printOptions = PrintOptions()
printOptions.setPageRanges("1-2")

val pdf: Pdf = printer.print(printOptions)
val content = pdf.content