Browsing Context

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This section contains the APIs related to browsing context commands.

Open a new window

Creates a new browsing context in a new window.

Selenium v4.8

    void testCreateAWindow() {
        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.WINDOW);
        Assertions.assertNotNull(browsingContext.getId());
    }

Open a new tab

Creates a new browsing context in a new tab.

Selenium v4.8

    void testCreateATab() {
        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.TAB);
        Assertions.assertNotNull(browsingContext.getId());
    }

Use existing window handle

Creates a browsing context for the existing tab/window to run commands.

Selenium v4.8

    void testCreateABrowsingContextForGivenId() {
        String id = driver.getWindowHandle();
        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, id);
        Assertions.assertEquals(id, browsingContext.getId());
    }

Open a window with a reference browsing context

A reference browsing context is a top-level browsing context. The API allows to pass the reference browsing context, which is used to create a new window. The implementation is operating system specific.

Selenium v4.8

    void testCreateAWindowWithAReferenceContext() {
        BrowsingContext
                browsingContext =
                new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.WINDOW, driver.getWindowHandle());
        Assertions.assertNotNull(browsingContext.getId());
    }

Open a tab with a reference browsing context

A reference browsing context is a top-level browsing context. The API allows to pass the reference browsing context, which is used to create a new tab. The implementation is operating system specific.

Selenium v4.8

    void testCreateATabWithAReferenceContext() {
        BrowsingContext
                browsingContext =
                new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.TAB, driver.getWindowHandle());
        Assertions.assertNotNull(browsingContext.getId());
    }

Selenium v4.8

    void testNavigateToAUrl() {
        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.TAB);

        NavigationResult info = browsingContext.navigate("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/bidi/logEntryAdded.html");

        Assertions.assertNotNull(browsingContext.getId());
        Assertions.assertNotNull(info.getNavigationId());
        Assertions.assertTrue(info.getUrl().contains("/bidi/logEntryAdded.html"));
    }

Selenium v4.8

    void testNavigateToAUrlWithReadinessState() {
        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.TAB);

        NavigationResult info = browsingContext.navigate("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/bidi/logEntryAdded.html",
                ReadinessState.COMPLETE);

        Assertions.assertNotNull(browsingContext.getId());
        Assertions.assertNotNull(info.getNavigationId());
        Assertions.assertTrue(info.getUrl().contains("/bidi/logEntryAdded.html"));
    }

Get browsing context tree

Provides a tree of all browsing contexts descending from the parent browsing context, including the parent browsing context.

Selenium v4.8

    void testGetTreeWithAChild() {
        String referenceContextId = driver.getWindowHandle();
        BrowsingContext parentWindow = new BrowsingContext(driver, referenceContextId);

        parentWindow.navigate("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/iframes.html", ReadinessState.COMPLETE);

        List<BrowsingContextInfo> contextInfoList = parentWindow.getTree();

        Assertions.assertEquals(1, contextInfoList.size());
        BrowsingContextInfo info = contextInfoList.get(0);
        Assertions.assertEquals(1, info.getChildren().size());
        Assertions.assertEquals(referenceContextId, info.getId());
        Assertions.assertTrue(info.getChildren().get(0).getUrl().contains("formPage.html"));
    }

Get browsing context tree with depth

Provides a tree of all browsing contexts descending from the parent browsing context, including the parent browsing context upto the depth value passed.

Selenium v4.8

    void testGetTreeWithDepth() {
        String referenceContextId = driver.getWindowHandle();
        BrowsingContext parentWindow = new BrowsingContext(driver, referenceContextId);

        parentWindow.navigate("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/iframes.html", ReadinessState.COMPLETE);

        List<BrowsingContextInfo> contextInfoList = parentWindow.getTree(0);

        Assertions.assertEquals(1, contextInfoList.size());
        BrowsingContextInfo info = contextInfoList.get(0);
        Assertions.assertNull(info.getChildren()); // since depth is 0
        Assertions.assertEquals(referenceContextId, info.getId());
    }

Get All Top level browsing contexts

Selenium v4.8

    void testGetAllTopLevelContexts() {
        BrowsingContext window1 = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());
        BrowsingContext window2 = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.WINDOW);

        List<BrowsingContextInfo> contextInfoList = window1.getTopLevelContexts();

        Assertions.assertEquals(2, contextInfoList.size());
    }

Close a tab/window

Selenium v4.8

    void testCloseAWindow() {
        BrowsingContext window1 = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.WINDOW);
        BrowsingContext window2 = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.WINDOW);

        window2.close();

        Assertions.assertThrows(BiDiException.class, window2::getTree);
    }

    @Test
    void testCloseATab() {
        BrowsingContext tab1 = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.TAB);
        BrowsingContext tab2 = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.TAB);

        tab2.close();

        Assertions.assertThrows(BiDiException.class, tab2::getTree);
    }

Activate a browsing context

Selenium v4.14.1

        BrowsingContext window1 = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());
        BrowsingContext window2 = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.WINDOW);

        window1.activate();

Reload a browsing context

Selenium v4.13.0

        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, WindowType.TAB);

        browsingContext.navigate("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/bidi/logEntryAdded.html", ReadinessState.COMPLETE);

        NavigationResult reloadInfo = browsingContext.reload(ReadinessState.INTERACTIVE);

Handle user prompt

Selenium v4.13.0

        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());

        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/alerts.html");

        driver.findElement(By.id("prompt-with-default")).click();

        String userText = "Selenium automates browsers";
        browsingContext.handleUserPrompt(true, userText);

Capture Screenshot

Selenium v4.13.0

        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());

        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/alerts.html");

        String screenshot = browsingContext.captureScreenshot();

Capture Viewport Screenshot

Selenium v4.14.0

        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());

        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/coordinates_tests/simple_page.html");

        WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.id("box"));
        Rectangle elementRectangle = element.getRect();

        String screenshot =
                browsingContext.captureBoxScreenshot(
                        elementRectangle.getX(), elementRectangle.getY(), 5, 5);

Capture Element Screenshot

Selenium v4.14.0

        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());

        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/formPage.html");
        WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.id("checky"));

        String screenshot = browsingContext.captureElementScreenshot(((RemoteWebElement) element).getId());

Set Viewport

Selenium v4.14.1

        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());
        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/formPage.html");

        browsingContext.setViewport(250, 300, 5);

Selenium v4.14.1

        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());

        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/formPage.html");
        PrintOptions printOptions = new PrintOptions();

        String printPage = browsingContext.print(printOptions);

Selenium v4.16.0

        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());
        browsingContext.navigate("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/formPage.html", ReadinessState.COMPLETE);

        wait.until(visibilityOfElementLocated(By.id("imageButton"))).submit();
        wait.until(titleIs("We Arrive Here"));

        browsingContext.back();

Selenium v4.16.0

    void canNavigateForwardInTheBrowserHistory() {
        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());
        browsingContext.navigate("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/formPage.html", ReadinessState.COMPLETE);

        wait.until(visibilityOfElementLocated(By.id("imageButton"))).submit();
        wait.until(titleIs("We Arrive Here"));

        browsingContext.back();
        Assertions.assertTrue(driver.getPageSource().contains("We Leave From Here"));

        browsingContext.forward();

Traverse history

Selenium v4.16.0

        BrowsingContext browsingContext = new BrowsingContext(driver, driver.getWindowHandle());
        browsingContext.navigate("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/formPage.html", ReadinessState.COMPLETE);

        wait.until(visibilityOfElementLocated(By.id("imageButton"))).submit();
        wait.until(titleIs("We Arrive Here"));

        browsingContext.traverseHistory(-1);