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返回本页常规视图.

双向协议

Selenium正在与浏览器供应商合作创建 WebDriver双向协议 , 作为一种提供稳定的跨浏览器API的方法, 该API使用双向协议处理 各种浏览器的通用自动化以及特定测试的需求. 在此之前, 寻求此功能的用户 必须忍受当前实现的全部问题和局限.

严格限制请求响应命令的传统WebDriver模型, 将从user agent转变为基于WebSockets的软件控制, 通过这样完善流事件的能力, 以便更好地匹配浏览器DOM的事件性质.

因为将测试受限于特定浏览器的特定版本是个坏主意, Selenium项目建议尽可能使用WebDriver BiDi. 然而, 在规范完成之前, CDP提供了许多有用的东西. 为了帮助保持测试的独立性和可移植性, Selenium提供了一些有用的辅助类. 目前, 这些应用程序使用CDP, 但我们将尽快提供WebDriver Bidi的实现.

1 - RemoteWebDriver BiDirectional API

Page being translated from English to Chinese. Do you speak Chinese? Help us to translate it by sending us pull requests!

The following examples demonstrate how to leverage BiDi APIs with Remote WebDriver.

Register Basic Auth

Some applications make use of browser authentication to secure pages. With Selenium, you can automate the input of basic auth credentials whenever they arise.

    driver = new Augmenter().addDriverAugmentation("chrome",
                                                   HasAuthentication.class,
                                                   (caps, exec) -> (whenThisMatches, useTheseCredentials) -> {
                                                     devToolsAtomicReference.get()
                                                       .createSessionIfThereIsNotOne();
                                                     devToolsAtomicReference.get().getDomains()
                                                       .network()
                                                       .addAuthHandler(whenThisMatches,
                                                                       useTheseCredentials);

                                                   }).augment(driver);

    DevTools devTools = ((HasDevTools) driver).getDevTools();
    devTools.createSession();
    devToolsAtomicReference.set(devTools);
    ((HasAuthentication) driver).register(UsernameAndPassword.of("admin", "admin"));

Mutation Observation

Mutation Observation is the ability to capture events via WebDriver BiDi when there are DOM mutations on a specific element in the DOM.

    driver = augmenter.
      addDriverAugmentation("chrome", HasLogEvents.class, (caps, exec) -> new HasLogEvents() {
        @Override
        public <X> void onLogEvent(EventType<X> kind) {
          kind.initializeListener(augmentedDriver.get());
        }
      }).augment(driver);

    DevTools devTools = ((HasDevTools) driver).getDevTools();
    devTools.createSession();

    if (driver instanceof HasLogEvents) {
      augmentedDriver.set(driver);
    } else {
      throw new Exception("Not an instance of HasLogEvents");
    }

    ((HasLogEvents) driver).onLogEvent(domMutation(mutation -> {
      if ("cheese".equals(mutation.getAttributeName())) {
        seen.set(mutation);
        latch.countDown();
      }
    }));

Listen to console.log events

Listen to the console.log events and register callbacks to process the event.

    driver = new Augmenter().augment(driver);
    DevTools devTools = ((HasDevTools) driver).getDevTools();
    devTools.createSession();

    // Use as per Devtools version
    devTools.send(org.openqa.selenium.devtools.v85.runtime.Runtime.enable());
    devTools.send(Log.enable());

    // https://chromedevtools.github.io/devtools-protocol/tot/Console/ states that post deprecation either Runtime or Log domain is to be used
    // Depending on the implementation, events from either of the domains can be fired for console logs.

    devTools.addListener(Log.entryAdded(),
                         logEntry -> {
                           System.out.println("log: " + logEntry.getText());
                           System.out.println("level: " + logEntry.getLevel());
                           latch.countDown();
                         });

    // Use as per Devtools version
    devTools.addListener(org.openqa.selenium.devtools.v85.runtime.Runtime.consoleAPICalled(),
                         consoleLog -> System.out.println("Type: " + consoleLog.getType()));

Actions causing JS exceptions

    driver = new Augmenter().augment(driver);
    DevTools devTools = ((HasDevTools) driver).getDevTools();
    devTools.createSession();

    List<JavascriptException> jsExceptionsList = new ArrayList<>();
    Consumer<JavascriptException> addEntry = jsExceptionsList::add;
    devTools.getDomains().events().addJavascriptExceptionListener(addEntry);

Network Interception

If you want to capture network events coming into the browser and you want manipulate them you are able to do it with the following examples.

    driver = new Augmenter().augment(driver);
    DevTools devTools = ((HasDevTools) driver).getDevTools();
    devTools.createSession();

    // Intercept and change response if the request uri contains "google"
    NetworkInterceptor interceptor = new NetworkInterceptor(
      driver,
      Route.matching(req -> req.getUri().contains("google"))
        .to(() -> req -> new HttpResponse()
          .setStatus(200)
          .addHeader("Content-Type", MediaType.HTML_UTF_8.toString())
          .setContent(utf8String("Creamy, delicious cheese!"))));

    driver.get("https://google.com");

2 - Chrome开发工具协议

虽然Selenium 4提供了对Chrome DevTools Protocol (CDP) 的直接访问, 但是仍非常鼓励您使用 WebDriver Bidi APIs 代替.

许多浏览器都提供"开发工具" – 一组与浏览器集成的工具, 开发人员可以用其调试web应用程序并探索其页面的性能. 谷歌浏览器开发工具 使用一种称为Chrome DevTools Protocol (简称"CDP") 的协议. 顾名思义, 这不是为测试而设计的, 而并没有一个稳定的API, 所以它的功能高度依赖于浏览器的版本.

WebDriver Bidi是W3C WebDriver的下一代协议, 旨在提供由所有浏览器实现稳定的API, 但尚未完成. 在此之前, Selenium提供了通过CDP实现的方式 (诸如Google Chrome或Microsoft Edge, 以及Firefox), 允许您以有趣的方式增强测试. 下面给出了实际使用的例子.

模拟地理位置

一些应用程序在不同的位置具有不同的特性和功能. 自动化此类应用程序很难, 因为很难使用Selenium在浏览器中模拟地理位置. 但是在Devtools的帮助下, 我们可以轻易模拟他们. 下面的代码片段演示了这一点.

ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
DevTools devTools = driver.getDevTools();
devTools.createSession();
devTools.send(Emulation.setGeolocationOverride(Optional.of(52.5043),
                                               Optional.of(13.4501),
                                               Optional.of(1)));
driver.get("https://my-location.org/");
driver.quit();
  
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.chrome.service import Service

def geoLocationTest():
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()
    Map_coordinates = dict({
        "latitude": 41.8781,
        "longitude": -87.6298,
        "accuracy": 100
        })
    driver.execute_cdp_cmd("Emulation.setGeolocationOverride", Map_coordinates)
    driver.get("<your site url>")
  
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;
using OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools;
// Replace the version to match the Chrome version
using OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools.V87.Emulation;

namespace dotnet_test {
  class Program {
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      GeoLocation().GetAwaiter().GetResult();
    }

    public static async Task GeoLocation() {
      ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
      DevToolsSession devToolsSession = driver.CreateDevToolsSession();
      var geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings = new SetGeolocationOverrideCommandSettings();

      geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings.Latitude = 51.507351;
      geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings.Longitude = -0.127758;
      geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings.Accuracy = 1;

      await devToolsSession
        .GetVersionSpecificDomains<OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools.V87.DevToolsSessionDomains>()
        .Emulation
        .SetGeolocationOverride(geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings);

        driver.Url = "<your site url>";
        }
    }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  # Latitude and longitude of Tokyo, Japan
  coordinates = { latitude: 35.689487,
                  longitude: 139.691706,
                  accuracy: 100 }
  driver.execute_cdp('Emulation.setGeolocationOverride', coordinates)
  driver.get 'https://www.google.com/search?q=selenium'
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');

(async function openChromeTest() {
  try {
    let driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
    
    const cdpConnection = await driver.createCDPConnection('page');
    //Latitude and longitude of Tokyo, Japan
    const coordinates = {
      latitude: 35.689487,
      longitude: 139.691706,
      accuracy: 100,
    };
    await cdpConnection.execute(
      "Emulation.setGeolocationOverride",
      coordinates
    );
    await driver.get("https://kawasaki-india.com/dealer-locator/");
    await driver.quit();
  } catch (error) {
    console.log(error)
  }
})();
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.devtools.DevTools

fun main() {
    val driver =  ChromeDriver()
    val coordinates : HashMap<String, Any> = HashMap<String, Any> ()
    coordinates.put("latitude", 50.2334)
    coordinates.put("longitude", 0.2334)
    coordinates.put("accuracy", 1)
    driver.executeCdpCommand("Emulation.setGeolocationOverride", coordinates)
    driver.get("https://www.google.com")
}
  

通过远程WebDriver模拟地理位置

ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("<grid-url>"), chromeOptions);
driver = new Augmenter().augment(driver);

DevTools devTools = ((HasDevTools) driver).getDevTools();
devTools.createSession();

devTools.send(Emulation.setGeolocationOverride(Optional.of(52.5043),
                                               Optional.of(13.4501),
                                               Optional.of(1)));
 
driver.get("https://my-location.org/");
driver.quit();
  
from selenium import webdriver
#Replace the version to match the Chrome version
import selenium.webdriver.common.devtools.v93 as devtools

async def geoLocationTest():
    chrome_options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Remote(
        command_executor='<grid-url>',
        options=chrome_options
    )

    async with driver.bidi_connection() as session:
        cdpSession = session.session
        await cdpSession.execute(devtools.emulation.set_geolocation_override(latitude=41.8781,longitude=-87.6298,accuracy=100))
    driver.get("https://my-location.org/")
    driver.quit()
  
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;
using OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools;
// Replace the version to match the Chrome version
using OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools.V87.Emulation;

namespace dotnet_test {
  class Program {
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      GeoLocation().GetAwaiter().GetResult();
    }

    public static async Task GeoLocation() {
      ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
      RemoteWebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new Uri("<grid-url>"), chromeOptions);
      DevToolsSession devToolsSession = driver.CreateDevToolsSession();
      var geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings = new SetGeolocationOverrideCommandSettings();

      geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings.Latitude = 51.507351;
      geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings.Longitude = -0.127758;
      geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings.Accuracy = 1;

      await devToolsSession
        .GetVersionSpecificDomains<OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools.V87.DevToolsSessionDomains>()
        .Emulation
        .SetGeolocationOverride(geoLocationOverrideCommandSettings);

        driver.Url = "https://my-location.org/";
        }
    }
}
  
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(
:remote, 
:url => "<grid-url>",
:capabilities => :chrome)

begin
  # Latitude and longitude of Tokyo, Japan
  coordinates = { latitude: 35.689487,
                  longitude: 139.691706,
                  accuracy: 100 }
  devToolsSession = driver.devtools
  devToolsSession.send_cmd('Emulation.setGeolocationOverride', coordinates)
  driver.get 'https://my-location.org/'
  puts res
ensure
  driver.quit
end

  
const webdriver = require('selenium-webdriver');
const BROWSER_NAME = webdriver.Browser.CHROME;

async function getDriver() {
  return new webdriver.Builder()
  .usingServer('<grid-url>')
  .forBrowser(BROWSER_NAME)
  .build();
}

async function executeCDPCommands () {
 let driver = await getDriver();

 await driver.get("<your site url>");
 
 const cdpConnection = await driver.createCDPConnection('page');
  //Latitude and longitude of Tokyo, Japan
  const coordinates = {
    latitude: 35.689487,
    longitude: 139.691706,
    accuracy: 100,
  };
  await cdpConnection.execute(
    "Emulation.setGeolocationOverride",
    coordinates
  );
 await driver.quit();
}

executeCDPCommands(); 
  
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions
import org.openqa.selenium.devtools.HasDevTools
// Replace the version to match the Chrome version
import org.openqa.selenium.devtools.v91.emulation.Emulation
import org.openqa.selenium.remote.Augmenter
import org.openqa.selenium.remote.RemoteWebDriver
import java.net.URL
import java.util.Optional

fun main() {
    val chromeOptions = ChromeOptions()
    var driver: WebDriver = RemoteWebDriver(URL("<grid-url>"), chromeOptions)
    driver = Augmenter().augment(driver)

    val devTools = (driver as HasDevTools).devTools
    devTools.createSession()

    devTools.send(
        Emulation.setGeolocationOverride(
            Optional.of(52.5043),
            Optional.of(13.4501),
            Optional.of(1)
        )
    )

    driver["https://my-location.org/"]
    driver.quit()
}

  

覆盖设备模式

使用Selenium与CDP的集成, 可以覆盖当前设备模式并模拟新模式. Width, height, mobile和deviceScaleFactor是必需的参数. 可选参数包括scale, screenWidth, screenHeight, positionX, positionY, dontSetVisible, screenOrientation, viewport和displayFeature.

ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
DevTools devTools = driver.getDevTools();
devTools.createSession();
// iPhone 11 Pro dimensions
devTools.send(Emulation.setDeviceMetricsOverride(375,
                                                 812,
                                                 50,
                                                 true,
                                                 Optional.empty(),
                                                 Optional.empty(),
                                                 Optional.empty(),
                                                 Optional.empty(),
                                                 Optional.empty(),
                                                 Optional.empty(),
                                                 Optional.empty(),
                                                 Optional.empty(),
                                                 Optional.empty()));
driver.get("https://selenium.dev/");
driver.quit();
# Please raise a PR to add code sample
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;
using OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools.V91.Emulation;
using WebDriverManager;
using WebDriverManager.DriverConfigs.Impl;
using DevToolsSessionDomains = OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools.V91.DevToolsSessionDomains;

namespace Selenium4Sample {
public class ExampleDevice {

    protected IDevToolsSession session;
    protected IWebDriver driver;
    protected DevToolsSessionDomains devToolsSession;

    public async Task DeviceModeTest() {
      new DriverManager().SetUpDriver(new ChromeConfig());
      ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
      //Set ChromeDriver
      driver = new ChromeDriver();
      //Get DevTools
      IDevTools devTools = driver as IDevTools;
      //DevTools Session
      session = devTools.GetDevToolsSession();

      var deviceModeSetting = new SetDeviceMetricsOverrideCommandSettings();
      deviceModeSetting.Width = 600;
      deviceModeSetting.Height = 1000;
      deviceModeSetting.Mobile = true;
      deviceModeSetting.DeviceScaleFactor = 50;

      await session
            .GetVersionSpecificDomains < OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools.V91.DevToolsSessionDomains > ()
            .Emulation
            .SetDeviceMetricsOverride(deviceModeSetting);

      driver.Url = "<your site url>";
    }
}
}
require 'selenium-webdriver'

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  metrics = { width: 300,
              height: 200,
              mobile: true,
              deviceScaleFactor: 50 }
  driver.execute_cdp('Emulation.setDeviceMetricsOverride', metrics)
  driver.get 'https://www.google.com'
ensure
  driver.quit
end
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');
const firefox = require('selenium-webdriver/firefox');
const options = new firefox.Options();
// enable debugger for CDP
options.enableDebugger();

(async function example() {
  try {
    let driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('firefox').setFirefoxOptions(options).build();
    const pageCdpConnection = await driver.createCDPConnection('page');
    const metrics = {
      width: 300,
      height: 200,
      deviceScaleFactor: 50,
      mobile: true,
    };
    await pageCdpConnection.execute(
      "Emulation.setDeviceMetricsOverride",
      metrics
    );
    await driver.get("https://www.google.com");
    await driver.quit();
  } catch (e) {
    console.log(e);
  }
})();
fun kotlinOverridDeviceMode() {
  val driver = ChromeDriver()

  val deviceMetrics: Map<String, Any> = object : HashMap<String, Any>() {
    init {
        put("width", 600)
        put("height", 1000)
        put("mobile", true)
        put("deviceScaleFactor", 50)
    }
  }

  driver.executeCdpCommand("Emulation.setDeviceMetricsOverride", deviceMetrics)
  driver.get("https://www.google.com")
  driver.quit()
}

Collect Performance Metrics

Collect various performance metrics while navigating the application.

import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.devtools.DevTools;

public void performanceMetricsExample() {
    ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
    DevTools devTools = driver.getDevTools();
    devTools.createSession();
    devTools.send(Performance.enable(Optional.empty()));
    List<Metric> metricList = devTools.send(Performance.getMetrics());

    driver.get("https://google.com");
    driver.quit();

    for(Metric m : metricList) {
        System.out.println(m.getName() + " = " + m.getValue());
    }
}
# Please raise a PR to add code sample
// File must contain the following using statements
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;
using OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools;

// We must use a version-specific set of domains
using OpenQA.Selenium.DevTools.V94.Performance;

public async Task PerformanceMetricsExample()
{
    IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
    IDevTools devTools = driver as IDevTools;
    DevToolsSession session = devTools.GetDevToolsSession();
    await session.SendCommand<EnableCommandSettings>(new EnableCommandSettings());
    var metricsResponse =
        await session.SendCommand<GetMetricsCommandSettings, GetMetricsCommandResponse>(
            new GetMetricsCommandSettings());

    driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("http://www.google.com");
    driver.Quit();

    var metrics = metricsResponse.Metrics;
    foreach (Metric metric in metrics)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("{0} = {1}", metric.Name, metric.Value);
    }
}
require 'selenium-webdriver'

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  driver.get 'https://www.duckduckgo.com'
  driver.execute_cdp('Performance.enable', {})
  metrics = driver.execute_cdp('Performance.getMetrics', {})
  puts metrics
ensure
  driver.quit
end
await driver.get("https://www.duckduckgo.com");

await driver.sendAndGetDevToolsCommand('Performance.enable')

let result = await driver.sendAndGetDevToolsCommand('Performance.getMetrics')
console.log(result)

await driver.quit();
val driver = ChromeDriver()
val devTools = driver.devTools
devTools.createSession()
devTools.send(Performance.enable(Optional.empty()))
val metricList: List<Metric> = devTools.send(Performance.getMetrics())

driver["https://google.com"]
driver.quit()

for (m in metricList) {
    println(m.name.toString() + " = " + m.value)
}

3 - 双向接口

Page being translated from English to Chinese. Do you speak Chinese? Help us to translate it by sending us pull requests!

The following list of APIs will be growing as the Selenium project works through supporting real world use cases. If there is additional functionality you’d like to see, please raise a feature request.

Register Basic Auth

Some applications make use of browser authentication to secure pages. With Selenium, you can automate the input of basic auth credentials whenever they arise.

Predicate<URI> uriPredicate = uri -> uri.getHost().contains("your-domain.com");

((HasAuthentication) driver).register(uriPredicate, UsernameAndPassword.of("admin", "password"));
driver.get("https://your-domain.com/login");
# Please raise a PR to add code sample
NetworkAuthenticationHandler handler = new NetworkAuthenticationHandler()
{
    UriMatcher = (d) => d.Host.Contains("your-domain.com"),
    Credentials = new PasswordCredentials("admin", "password")
};

INetwork networkInterceptor = driver.Manage().Network;
networkInterceptor.AddAuthenticationHandler(handler);
await networkInterceptor.StartMonitoring();
require 'selenium-webdriver'

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
  driver.devtools.new
  driver.register(username: 'username', password: 'password')
  driver.get '<your site url>'
ensure
  driver.quit
end
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');

(async function example() {
  try {
    let driver = await new Builder()
      .forBrowser('chrome')
      .build();

    const pageCdpConnection = await driver.createCDPConnection('page');
    await driver.register('username', 'password', pageCdpConnection);
    await driver.get('https://the-internet.herokuapp.com/basic_auth');
    await driver.quit();
  }catch (e){
    console.log(e)
  }
}())
val uriPredicate = Predicate { uri: URI ->
        uri.host.contains("your-domain.com")
    }
(driver as HasAuthentication).register(uriPredicate, UsernameAndPassword.of("admin", "password"))
driver.get("https://your-domain.com/login")

Mutation Observation

Mutation Observation is the ability to capture events via WebDriver BiDi when there are DOM mutations on a specific element in the DOM.

ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

AtomicReference<DomMutationEvent> seen = new AtomicReference<>();
CountDownLatch latch = new CountDownLatch(1);
((HasLogEvents) driver).onLogEvent(domMutation(mutation -> {
    seen.set(mutation);
    latch.countDown();
}));

driver.get("https://www.google.com");
WebElement span = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("span"));

((JavascriptExecutor) driver).executeScript("arguments[0].setAttribute('cheese', 'gouda');", span);

assertThat(latch.await(10, SECONDS), is(true));
assertThat(seen.get().getAttributeName(), is("cheese"));
assertThat(seen.get().getCurrentValue(), is("gouda"));

driver.quit();
  
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.wait import WebDriverWait

driver = webdriver.Chrome()
async with driver.log.mutation_events() as event:
    pages.load("dynamic.html")
    driver.find_element(By.ID, "reveal").click()
    WebDriverWait(driver, 5)\
        .until(EC.visibility_of(driver.find_element(By.ID, "revealed")))

assert event["attribute_name"] == "style"
assert event["current_value"] == ""
assert event["old_value"] == "display:none;"

  
List<DomMutationData> attributeValueChanges = new List<DomMutationData>();
DefaultWait<List<DomMutationData>> wait = new DefaultWait<List<DomMutationData>>(attributeValueChanges);
wait.Timeout = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(3);

IJavaScriptEngine monitor = new JavaScriptEngine(driver);
monitor.DomMutated += (sender, e) =>
{
    attributeValueChanges.Add(e.AttributeData);
};
await monitor.StartEventMonitoring();

driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("http://www.google.com");
IWebElement span = driver.FindElement(By.CssSelector("span"));

await monitor.EnableDomMutationMonitoring();
((IJavaScriptExecutor) driver).ExecuteScript("arguments[0].setAttribute('cheese', 'gouda');", span);

wait.Until((list) => list.Count > 0);
Console.WriteLine("Found {0} DOM mutation events", attributeValueChanges.Count);
foreach(var record in attributeValueChanges)
{
    Console.WriteLine("Attribute name: {0}", record.AttributeName);
    Console.WriteLine("Attribute value: {0}", record.AttributeValue);
}

await monitor.DisableDomMutationMonitoring();
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox
begin
  driver.on_log_event(:mutation) { |mutation| mutations.push(mutation) }
  driver.navigate.to url_for('dynamic.html')
  driver.find_element(id: 'reveal').click
  wait.until { mutations.any? }
  mutation = mutations.first
  expect(mutation.element).to eq(driver.find_element(id: 'revealed'))
  expect(mutation.attribute_name).to eq('style')
  expect(mutation.current_value).to eq('')
  expect(mutation.old_value).to eq('display:none;')
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const {Builder, until} = require('selenium-webdriver');
const assert = require("assert");

(async function example() {
  try {
    let driver = await new Builder()
      .forBrowser('chrome')
      .build();

    const cdpConnection = await driver.createCDPConnection('page');
    await driver.logMutationEvents(cdpConnection, event => {
      assert.deepStrictEqual(event['attribute_name'], 'style');
      assert.deepStrictEqual(event['current_value'], "");
      assert.deepStrictEqual(event['old_value'], "display:none;");
    });

    await driver.get('dynamic.html');
    await driver.findElement({id: 'reveal'}).click();
    let revealed = driver.findElement({id: 'revealed'});
    await driver.wait(until.elementIsVisible(revealed), 5000);
    await driver.quit();
  }catch (e){
    console.log(e)
  }
}())
  
# Please raise a PR to add code sample
  

Listen to console.log events

Listen to the console.log events and register callbacks to process the event.

ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
DevTools devTools = driver.getDevTools();
devTools.createSession();
devTools.send(Log.enable());
devTools.addListener(Log.entryAdded(),
                           logEntry -> {
                               System.out.println("log: "+logEntry.getText());
                               System.out.println("level: "+logEntry.getLevel());
                           });
driver.get("http://the-internet.herokuapp.com/broken_images");
// Check the terminal output for the browser console messages.
driver.quit();
async def printConsoleLogs():
  chrome_options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
  driver = webdriver.Chrome()
  driver.get("http://www.google.com")

  async with driver.bidi_connection() as session:
      log = Log(driver, session)
      from selenium.webdriver.common.bidi.console import Console
      async with log.add_listener(Console.ALL) as messages:
          driver.execute_script("console.log('I love cheese')")
      print(messages["message"])

  driver.quit()
IJavaScriptEngine monitor = new JavaScriptEngine(driver);
List<string> consoleMessages = new List<string>();
monitor.JavaScriptConsoleApiCalled += (sender, e) =>
{
    Console.WriteLine("Log: {0}", e.MessageContent);
};
await monitor.StartEventMonitoring();
require 'selenium-webdriver'

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
begin
  driver.get 'http://www.google.com'
  logs = []
  driver.on_log_event(:console) do |event|
    logs.push(event)
    puts logs.length
  end

  driver.execute_script('console.log("here")')

ensure
  driver.quit
end
const {Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');
(async () => {
  try {
    let driver = new Builder()
      .forBrowser('chrome')
      .build();

    const cdpConnection = await driver.createCDPConnection('page');
    await driver.onLogEvent(cdpConnection, function (event) {
      console.log(event['args'][0]['value']);
    });
    await driver.executeScript('console.log("here")');
    await driver.quit();
  }catch (e){
    console.log(e);
  }
})()
fun kotlinConsoleLogExample() {
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
    val devTools = driver.devTools
    devTools.createSession()

    val logConsole = { c: ConsoleEvent -> print("Console log message is: " + c.messages)}
    devTools.domains.events().addConsoleListener(logConsole)

    driver.get("https://www.google.com")

    val executor = driver as JavascriptExecutor
    executor.executeScript("console.log('Hello World')")

    val input = driver.findElement(By.name("q"))
    input.sendKeys("Selenium 4")
    input.sendKeys(Keys.RETURN)
    driver.quit()
}

Listen to JS Exceptions

Listen to the JS Exceptions and register callbacks to process the exception details.

import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.devtools.DevTools;

public void jsExceptionsExample() {
    ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
    DevTools devTools = driver.getDevTools();
    devTools.createSession();

    List<JavascriptException> jsExceptionsList = new ArrayList<>();
    Consumer<JavascriptException> addEntry = jsExceptionsList::add;
    devTools.getDomains().events().addJavascriptExceptionListener(addEntry);

    driver.get("<your site url>");

    WebElement link2click = driver.findElement(By.linkText("<your link text>"));
    ((JavascriptExecutor) driver).executeScript("arguments[0].setAttribute(arguments[1], arguments[2]);",
          link2click, "onclick", "throw new Error('Hello, world!')");
    link2click.click();

    for (JavascriptException jsException : jsExceptionsList) {
        System.out.println("JS exception message: " + jsException.getMessage());
        System.out.println("JS exception system information: " + jsException.getSystemInformation());
        jsException.printStackTrace();
    }
}
async def catchJSException():
  chrome_options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
  driver = webdriver.Chrome()

  async with driver.bidi_connection() as session:
      driver.get("<your site url>")
      log = Log(driver, session)
      async with log.add_js_error_listener() as messages:
          # Operation on the website that throws an JS error
      print(messages)

  driver.quit()
List<string> exceptionMessages = new List<string>();
IJavaScriptEngine monitor = new JavaScriptEngine(driver);
monitor.JavaScriptExceptionThrown += (sender, e) =>
{
    exceptionMessages.Add(e.Message);
};

await monitor.StartEventMonitoring();

driver.Navigate.GoToUrl("<your site url>");

IWebElement link2click = driver.FindElement(By.LinkText("<your link text>"));
((IJavaScriptExecutor) driver).ExecuteScript("arguments[0].setAttribute(arguments[1], arguments[2]);",
      link2click, "onclick", "throw new Error('Hello, world!')");
link2click.Click();

foreach (string message in exceptionMessages)
{
    Console.WriteLine("JS exception message: {0}", message);
}
require 'selenium-webdriver'

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
begin
  driver.get '<your-site-url>'
  exceptions = []
  driver.on_log_event(:exception) do |event|
    exceptions.push(event)
    puts exceptions.length
  end

  # Actions causing JS exceptions

ensure
  driver.quit
end
const {Builder, By} = require('selenium-webdriver');
(async () => {
  try {
    let driver = new Builder()
      .forBrowser('chrome')
      .build();

    const cdpConnection = await driver.createCDPConnection('page')
    await driver.onLogException(cdpConnection, function (event) {
      console.log(event['exceptionDetails']);
    })
    await driver.get('https://the-internet.herokuapp.com');
    const link = await driver.findElement(By.linkText('Checkboxes'));
    await driver.executeScript("arguments[0].setAttribute(arguments[1], arguments[2]);", link, "onclick","throw new Error('Hello, world!')");
    await link.click();
    await driver.quit();
  }catch (e){
    console.log(e);
  }
})()
fun kotlinJsErrorListener() {
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
    val devTools = driver.devTools
    devTools.createSession()

    val logJsError = { j: JavascriptException -> print("Javascript error: '" + j.localizedMessage + "'.") }
    devTools.domains.events().addJavascriptExceptionListener(logJsError)

    driver.get("https://www.google.com")

    val link2click = driver.findElement(By.name("q"))
    (driver as JavascriptExecutor).executeScript(
      "arguments[0].setAttribute(arguments[1], arguments[2]);",
      link2click, "onclick", "throw new Error('Hello, world!')"
    )
    link2click.click()

    driver.quit()
}

Network Interception

If you want to capture network events coming into the browser and you want manipulate them you are able to do it with the following examples.

    import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
    import org.openqa.selenium.devtools.HasDevTools;
    import org.openqa.selenium.devtools.NetworkInterceptor;
    import org.openqa.selenium.remote.http.Contents;
    import org.openqa.selenium.remote.http.Filter;
    import org.openqa.selenium.remote.http.HttpResponse;
    import org.openqa.selenium.remote.http.Route;

    NetworkInterceptor interceptor = new NetworkInterceptor(
      driver,
      Route.matching(req -> true)
        .to(() -> req -> new HttpResponse()
          .setStatus(200)
          .addHeader("Content-Type", MediaType.HTML_UTF_8.toString())
          .setContent(utf8String("Creamy, delicious cheese!"))));

   driver.get("https://example-sausages-site.com");

    String source = driver.getPageSource();

    assertThat(source).contains("delicious cheese!");
# Currently unavailable in python due the inability to mix certain async and sync commands
# Please raise a PR to add code sample
require 'selenium-webdriver'

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
driver.intercept do |request, &continue|
    uri = URI(request.url)
    if uri.path.end_with?('one.js')
      uri.path = '/devtools_request_interception_test/two.js'
      request.url = uri.to_s
    end
    continue.call(request)
end
driver.navigate.to url_for('devToolsRequestInterceptionTest.html')
driver.find_element(tag_name: 'button').click
expect(driver.find_element(id: 'result').text).to eq('two')
const connection = await driver.createCDPConnection('page')
let url = fileServer.whereIs("/cheese")
let httpResponse = new HttpResponse(url)
httpResponse.addHeaders("Content-Type", "UTF-8")
httpResponse.body = "sausages"
await driver.onIntercept(connection, httpResponse, async function () {
  let body = await driver.getPageSource()
  assert.strictEqual(body.includes("sausages"), true, `Body contains: ${body}`)
})
driver.get(url)
val driver = ChromeDriver()
val interceptor = new NetworkInterceptor(
      driver,
      Route.matching(req -> true)
        .to(() -> req -> new HttpResponse()
          .setStatus(200)
          .addHeader("Content-Type", MediaType.HTML_UTF_8.toString())
          .setContent(utf8String("Creamy, delicious cheese!"))))

    driver.get(appServer.whereIs("/cheese"))

    String source = driver.getPageSource()