这是本节的多页打印视图。 点击此处打印.

返回本页常规视图.

Selenium 浏览器自动化项目

Selenium 是支持 web 浏览器自动化的一系列工具和库的综合项目。

它提供了扩展来模拟用户与浏览器的交互,用于扩展浏览器分配的分发服务器, 以及用于实现 W3C WebDriver 规范 的基础结构, 该 规范 允许您为所有主要 Web 浏览器编写可互换的代码。

这个项目是由志愿者贡献者实现的,他们投入了自己数千小时的时间, 并使源代码免费提供给任何人使用、享受和改进。

Selenium 汇集了浏览器供应商,工程师和爱好者,以进一步围绕 Web 平台自动化进行公开讨论。 该项目组织了一次年度会议,以教学和培养社区。

Selenium 的核心是 WebDriver,这是一个编写指令集的接口,可以在许多浏览器中互换运行。 这里有一个最简单的说明:

package dev.selenium.hello;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class HelloSelenium {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

        driver.get("https://selenium.dev");

        driver.quit();
    }
}
from selenium import webdriver


driver = webdriver.Chrome()

driver.get("http://selenium.dev")

driver.quit()
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace SeleniumDocs.Hello;

public static class HelloSelenium
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        var driver = new ChromeDriver();
            
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://selenium.dev");
            
        driver.Quit();
    }
}
require 'selenium-webdriver'

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

driver.get 'https://selenium.dev'

driver.quit
const {Builder, Browser} = require('selenium-webdriver');

(async function helloSelenium() {
  let driver = await new Builder().forBrowser(Browser.CHROME).build();

  await driver.get('https://selenium.dev');

  await driver.quit();
})();
package dev.selenium.hello

import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
    val driver = ChromeDriver()

    driver.get("https://selenium.dev")

    driver.quit()
}

请参阅 概述 以检查不同的项目组件, 并确定Selenium是否适合您.

您应该继续阅读 开始, 以了解如何安装Selenium, 将其成功用作测试自动化工具, 并将这样的简单测试扩展为 在大型分布式环境, 以及不同操作系统上的环境上 运行多个浏览器的测试.

1 - 概述

Selenium适合你吗? 请参见不同项目组件的概述.

Selenium 不仅仅是一个工具或 API, 它还包含许多工具.

WebDriver

如果您开始使用桌面网站测试自动化, 那么您将使用 WebDriver APIs. WebDriver 使用浏览器供应商提供的浏览器自动化 API 来控制浏览器和运行测试. 这就像真正的用户正在操作浏览器一样. 由于 WebDriver 不要求使用应用程序代码编译其 API, 因此它本质上不具有侵入性. 因此, 您测试的应用程序与实时推送的应用程序相同.

Selenium IDE

Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment 集成开发环境) 是用来开发 Selenium 测试用例的工具. 这是一个易于使用的 Chrome 和 Firefox 浏览器扩展, 通常是开发测试用例最有效率的方式. 它使用现有的 Selenium 命令记录用户在浏览器中的操作, 参数由元素的上下文确定. 这不仅节省了开发时间, 而且是学习 Selenium 脚本语法的一种很好的方法.

Grid

Selenium Grid允许您在不同平台的不同机器上运行测试用例. 可以本地控制测试用例的操作, 当测试用例被触发时, 它们由远端自动执行.

当开发完WebDriver测试之后, 您可能需要在多个浏览器和操作系统的组合上运行测试. 这就是 Grid 的用途所在.

1.1 - 了解组件

使用 WebDriver 构建测试套件需要您理解并有效地使用许多不同的组件。就像软件中的一切一样, 不同的人对同一个想法使用不同的术语。下面是在这个描述中如何使用术语的细分。

专业术语

  • API: 应用程序编程接口。这是一组用来操作 WebDriver 的 “命令”。
  • 库: 一个代码模块,它包含 api 和实现这些 api 所需的代码。库是对应于具体的语言的,例如 Java 的 .jar 文件,.NET 的 .dll 文件,等等。
  • 驱动程序: 负责控制实际的浏览器。大多数驱动程序是由浏览器厂商自己创建的。 驱动程序通常是与浏览器一起在系统上运行的可执行模块,而不是在执行测试套件的系统上。 (尽管它们可能是同一个系统。) 注意: 有些人把驱动称为代理。
  • 框架: 用于支持 WebDriver 套件的附加库。这些框架可能是测试框架,如 JUnit 或 NUnit。 它们也可能是支持自然语言特性的框架,如 Cucumber 或 Robotium。还可以编写和使用框架来操作或配置被测试的系统、 数据创建、测试预言等等。

组成部分

至少,WebDriver 通过一个驱动程序与浏览器对话。通信有两种方式: WebDriver 通过驱动程序向浏览器传递命令, 然后通过相同的路径接收信息。

基本通信

驱动程序是特定于浏览器的,例如 ChromeDriver 对应于谷歌的 Chrome/Chromium, GeckoDriver 对应于 Mozilla 的 Firefox 的,等等。驱动程序在与浏览器相同的系统上运行。 这可能与执行测试本身的系统相同,也可能不同。

上面这个简单的例子就是 _直接_通信。与浏览器的通信也可以是通过 Selenium 服务器或 RemoteWebDriver 进行的 _远程_通信。RemoteWebDriver 与驱动程序和浏览器运行在同一个系统上。

远程通信

远程通信也可以使用 Selenium Server 或 Selenium Grid 进行,这两者依次与主机系统上的驱动程序进行通信

通过 Grid 远程通信

应用框架

WebDriver 有且只有一个任务: 通过上面的任何方法与浏览器通信。WebDriver 对测试一窍不通:它不知道如何比较事物、 断言通过或失败,当然它也不知道报告或 Given/When/Then 语法。

这就是各种框架发挥作用的地方。至少你需要一个与绑定语言相匹配的测试框架,比如. NET 的 NUnit, Java 的 JUnit, Ruby 的 RSpec 等等。

测试框架负责运行和执行 WebDriver 以及测试中相关步骤。因此,您可以认为它看起来类似于下图。

测试框架

像 Cucumber 这样的自然语言框架/工具可能作为上图中测试框架框的一部分存在, 或者它们可能将测试框架完全封装在它们自己的实现中。

1.2 - 深度介绍

Selenium 是一系列工具和库的综合项目,这些工具和库支持 web 浏览器的自动化。

Selenium 控制网页浏览器

Selenium 有很多功能, 但其核心是 web 浏览器自动化的一个工具集, 它使用最好的技术来远程控制浏览器实例, 并模拟用户与浏览器的交互。

它允许用户模拟终端用户执行的常见活动;将文本输入到字段中,选择下拉值和复选框,并单击文档中的链接。 它还提供许多其他控件,比如鼠标移动、任意 JavaScript 执行等等。

虽然 Selenium 主要用于网站的前端测试,但其核心是浏览器用户代理库。 这些接口在应用程序中无处不在,它们鼓励与其他库进行组合,以满足您的目的。

一个接口来统治它们

该项目的指导原则之一是支持所有(主要)浏览器技术的通用接口。 Web 浏览器是非常复杂的,高度工程化的应用程序, 以完全不同的方式执行它们的操作,但是在执行这些操作时,它们通常看起来是一样的 即使文本以相同的字体呈现,图像也会显示在相同的位置,并且链接会将您带到相同的目的地。 下面发生的事情就像白天和黑夜一样不同。 Selenium “抽象”了这些差异,向编写代码的人隐藏了它们的细节和复杂性。 这允许您编写几行代码来执行一个复杂的工作流程, 但是这几行代码将在 Firefox、 Internet Explorer、 Chrome 和所有其他支持的浏览器上执行。

工具和支持

Selenium 的极简设计方法使其具有通用性,可以作为更大应用程序中的组件。 Selenium 保护伞下提供的周边基础设施为您提供了组合自己的 浏览器 grid 的工具, 因此测试就可以跨一系列机器在不同的浏览器和多个操作系统上运行。

想象一下, 服务器机房或数据中心的一组计算机同时启动浏览器,访问站点的链接、表单和表格 — 全天 24 小时测试应用程序。 通过为最常见的语言提供的简单编程接口, 这些测试将不知疲倦地并行运行, 当错误发生时向您报告。

通过为用户提供工具和文档, 不仅可以控制浏览器, 还可以方便地扩展和部署这些grid, 从而帮助您实现这一目标。

谁在使用 Selenium

世界上许多最重要的公司都在基于浏览器的测试中采用了 Selenium, 这常常取代了多年来涉及其他专有工具的工作。 随着它越来越受欢迎, 它的需求和挑战也成倍增加。

随着网络变得越来越复杂,新的技术被添加到网站上, 这个项目的任务就是尽可能地跟上它们。 作为一个开源项目,这种支持是通过许多志愿者的慷慨捐赠来提供的, 每个志愿者都有一份“日常工作”。

该项目的另一个任务是鼓励更多的志愿者参与到这项工作中来, 并建立一个强大的社区,以便项目能够继续跟上新兴的技术, 并继续成为功能测试自动化的主导平台。

2 - WebDriver

WebDriver以原生的方式驱动浏览器; 在此了解更多内容.

WebDriver 以本地化方式驱动浏览器,就像用户在本地或使用 Selenium 服务器的远程机器上所做的那样,这标志着浏览器自动化的飞跃。

Selenium WebDriver 指的是语言绑定和各个浏览器控制代码的实现。 这通常被称为 WebDriver

Selenium WebDriver 是 W3C 推荐标准

  • WebDriver 被设计成一个简单和简洁的编程接口。

  • WebDriver 是一个简洁的面向对象 API。

  • 它能有效地驱动浏览器。

2.1 - 入门指南

如果你是Selenium的新手, 我们有一些资源帮助你快速入门.

Selenium 通过使用 WebDriver 支持市场上所有主流浏览器的自动化。 WebDriver 是一个 API 和协议,它定义了一个语言中立的接口,用于控制 web 浏览器的行为。 每个浏览器都有一个特定的 WebDriver 实现,称为驱动程序。 驱动程序是负责委派给浏览器的组件,并处理与 Selenium 和浏览器之间的通信。

这种分离是有意识地努力让浏览器供应商为其浏览器的实现负责的一部分。 Selenium 在可能的情况下使用这些第三方驱动程序, 但是在这些驱动程序不存在的情况下,它也提供了由项目自己维护的驱动程序。

Selenium 框架通过一个面向用户的界面将所有这些部分连接在一起, 该界面允许透明地使用不同的浏览器后端, 从而实现跨浏览器和跨平台自动化。

Selenium的设置与其他商业工具有很大不同. 在开始编写 Selenium 代码之前, 您必须安装所选语言的相关类库, 目标浏览器的驱动程序.

请点击以下链接,开始使用 Selenium WebDriver.

如果您希望从低代码/录制和播放工具开始,请查看 Selenium IDE

开始工作后,如果想扩展您的测试,请查看 Selenium Grid.

2.1.1 - 安装Selenium类库

配置自动化的浏览器.

首先,您需要为自动化项目安装 Selenium 绑定库。 库的安装过程取决于您选择使用的语言。

请求对应的程序语言

查看该库所支持java的最低版本 here.

应熟练掌握build tool以安装支持java的Selenium库

Maven

具体的依赖位于项目中的 pom.xml 文件:

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.seleniumhq.selenium</groupId>
            <artifactId>selenium-java</artifactId>
            <version>${selenium.version}</version>

Gradle

具体的依赖位于项目中的 build.gradle 文件中的 testImplementation:

    testImplementation 'org.seleniumhq.selenium:selenium-java:4.22.0'
    testImplementation 'org.junit.jupiter:junit-jupiter-engine:5.10.3'

该库所支持的Python版本最低版本可以在 支持的Python版本 章节中找到 PyPi

这里提供了几种不同的方式来安装 Selenium .

Pip

pip install selenium

下载

此外你可以从这里下载 PyPI source archive (selenium-x.x.x.tar.gz) 并通过: setup.py 文件安装:

python setup.py install

在项目中使用

为了在项目中使用它,需要将它添加到 requirements.txt 文件中:

selenium==4.22.0

Selenium 所支持的所有平台的列表一览 见诸于 Nuget

该处阐述了一些安装Selenium的选项.

包管理器

Install-Package Selenium.WebDriver

.NET CLI

dotnet add package Selenium.WebDriver

CSProj

csproj 文件里, 具体的依赖 PackageReference(包参数) 位于 ItemGroup (项目组)中:

      <PackageReference Include="Selenium.WebDriver" Version="4.22.0" />

其他附加思虑事项

更多的注意事项,适用于使用 Visual Studio Code (vscode) 和 C#

安装兼容的 .NET SDK 作为章节的先决条件 同时安装 vscode 的扩展 (Ctrl-Shift-X)以适配 C# 和 NuGet 可以遵照此处进行 操作指南 创建 C# 控制台项目并运行 “Hello World”. 你也可以用命令行 dotnet new NUnit 创建NUnit初阶项目. 确保文件 %appdata%\NuGet\nuget.config 已经配置完成,就像某位开发者报告的问题一样,它可能因为某种因素被自动清空. 如果 nuget.config 是空的,或者未配置的,那么 .NET 创建的Selenium项目可能失败. 加入如下章节到文件 nuget.config 如果出现清空的情况:

<configuration>
  <packageSources>
    <add key="nuget.org" value="https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json" protocolVersion="3" />
    <add key="nuget.org" value="https://www.nuget.org/api/v2/" />   
  </packageSources>
...

更多关于 nuget.config 的信息 点击. 你可能需要按照自己的需求配置 nuget.config .

现在,返回 vscode ,按下 Ctrl-Shift-P, 然后键入 “NuGet Add Package”, 并选择自己需要的 Selenium 包,例如 Selenium.WebDriver. 按下回车并选择版本. 现在你可以使用说明文档中关于 C# vscode下的案例了.

你可以查看 Selenium 对 Ruby 版本支持和最低支持. 具体位于 rubygems.org

Selenium 可以使用两种不同方法安装.

手动安装

gem install selenium-webdriver

加入项目的 gemfile

gem 'selenium-devtools', '= 0.126.0'

You can find the minimum required version of Node for any given version of Selenium in the 你可以在此查看 Selenium 对 Node 的版本支持情况 位于 Node Support Policy 中的相关章节 npmjs

Selenium is typically installed using npm.

本地安装

npm install selenium-webdriver

加入项目

在你的项目 package.json, 必须加入到 dependencies:

        "mocha": "10.6.0"
Use the Java bindings for Kotlin.

下一步

创建你的第一个Selenium脚本

2.1.2 - 编写第一个Selenium脚本

逐步构建一个Selenium脚本的说明

当你完成 Selenium安装 后, 便可以开始书写Selenium脚本了.

八个基本组成部分

Selenium所做的一切, 就是发送给浏览器命令, 用以执行某些操作或为信息发送请求. 您将使用Selenium执行的大部分操作, 都是以下基本命令的组合

点击 “View full example on GitHub” 的链接以查看上下文中的代码.

1. 使用驱动实例开启会话

关于如何启动会话,请浏览我们的文档 驱动会话

        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver = webdriver.Chrome()
        IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
    driver = await new Builder().forBrowser(Browser.CHROME).build();
        driver = ChromeDriver()

2. 在浏览器上执行操作

在本例中, 我们 导航 到一个网页.

        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");
driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");
driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html')
    await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html');
        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

3. 请求 浏览器信息

您可以请求一系列关于浏览器的信息 , 包括窗口句柄、浏览器尺寸/位置、cookie、警报等.

        driver.getTitle();
title = driver.title
        var title = driver.Title;
    let title = await driver.getTitle();
        val title = driver.title

4. 建立等待策略

将代码与浏览器的当前状态同步 是Selenium面临的最大挑战之一, 做好它是一个高级主题.

基本上, 您希望在尝试定位元素之前, 确保该元素位于页面上, 并且在尝试与该元素交互之前, 该元素处于可交互状态.

隐式等待很少是最好的解决方案, 但在这里最容易演示, 所以我们将使用它作为占位符.

阅读更多关于等待策略 的信息.

        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500));
driver.implicitly_wait(0.5)
        driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(500);
driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 500
    await driver.manage().setTimeouts({implicit: 500});
        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500))

5. 发送命令 查找元素

大多数Selenium会话中的主要命令都与元素相关, 如果不先找到元素, 就无法与之交互.

        WebElement textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"));
        WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"));
text_box = driver.find_element(by=By.NAME, value="my-text")
submit_button = driver.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value="button")
        var textBox = driver.FindElement(By.Name("my-text"));
        var submitButton = driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button"));
text_box = driver.find_element(name: 'my-text')
submit_button = driver.find_element(tag_name: 'button')
    let textBox = await driver.findElement(By.name('my-text'));
    let submitButton = await driver.findElement(By.css('button'));
        var textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"))
        val submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"))

6. 操作元素

对于一个元素, 只有少数几个操作可以执行, 但您将经常使用它们.

        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium");
        submitButton.click();
text_box.send_keys("Selenium")
submit_button.click()
        textBox.SendKeys("Selenium");
        submitButton.Click();
text_box.send_keys('Selenium')
submit_button.click
    await textBox.sendKeys('Selenium');
    await submitButton.click();
        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium")
        submitButton.click()

7. 获取元素信息

元素存储了很多被请求的信息.

        message.getText();
text = message.text
        var value = message.Text;
    let value = await message.getText();
        val value = message.getText()

8. 结束会话

这将结束驱动程序进程, 默认情况下, 该进程也会关闭浏览器. 无法向此驱动程序实例发送更多命令.

详见 Quitting Sessions.

运行 Selenium 文件

{
mvn exec:java -D"exec.mainClass"="dev.selenium.getting_started.FirstScript" -D"exec.classpathScope"=test
ruby example_script.rb
node example_script.spec.js

接下来的步骤

大多数 Selenium 用户执行许多会话, 需要组织它们以最大限度地减少重复并维持代码更易于维护. 请继续阅读,了解如何将此代码放入您用例的上下文中 使用 Selenium.

2.1.3 - 组织和执行Selenium代码

使用IDE和Test Runner库组织Selenium的执行

如果你不仅仅只是想执行一小撮的一次性脚本,你需要能组织和安排好你的代码。这一页会启发你如何真正地使用 Selenium 代码做高效的事情。

常见用法

大部分人使用 Selenium 执行针对 Web 应用的自动化测试,但是 Selenium 其实可以支持任何场景的浏览器自动化。

重复性任务

有时候你需要往网站记录日志或者下载一些东西,或者提交一个表单,你可以在预设的时间创建一个 Selenium 脚本去执行一个服务。

网页爬虫

你是否期望从一个不提供 API 的网站收集数据?Selenium 可以满足你,但是请确保你了解该网站的服务条例,因为有些网站不允许你这样做,甚至有些网站会屏蔽 Selenium。

测试

使用 Selenium 做测试需要在 Selenium 执行操作后进行断言,所以一个好的断言类库是很有必要的。至于组织测试用例结构的一些额外特性则需要Test Runner来完成。

IDEs

不管你要用 Selenium 来做什么,没有一个好的集成开发环境,你的工作肯定不会高效。以下是一些常见的 IDE 选择:

Test Runner

即使不使用 Selenium 做测试,如果你有高级用例,使用一个 test runner 去更好地组织你的代码是很有意义的。学会使用 before/after hooks 和分组执行或者并行执行将会非常有用。

待选

有非常多不同的 test runner 可供选择。

这个教程中所有使用到 test runner 的代码示例都可以在我们的示例目录中找到(或者正在被迁移过去),而且这些示例在每一次发版都会被执行,以确保代码是正确的和最新的。下面是一份包含对应链接的 test runner 清单,其中第一项是被这个仓库和本页所有用例所使用的。

  • JUnit - A widely-used testing framework for Java-based Selenium tests.
  • TestNG - Offers extra features like parallel test execution and parameterized tests.
  • pytest - A preferred choice for many, thanks to its simplicity and powerful plugins.
  • unittest - Python’s standard library testing framework.
  • NUnit - A popular unit-testing framework for .NET.
  • MS Test - Microsoft’s own unit testing framework.
  • RSpec - The most widely used testing library for running Selenium tests in Ruby.
  • Minitest - A lightweight testing framework that comes with Ruby standard library.
  • Jest - Primarily known as a testing framework for React, it can also be used for Selenium tests.
  • Mocha - The most common JS library for running Selenium tests.

安装

安装 Selenium 类库一节中详细说明了需要哪些东西。这里的代码只展示在我们的文档示例项目中用到的示例。

Maven

Gradle

To use it in a project, add it to the requirements.txt file:

in the project’s csproj file, specify the dependency as a PackageReference in ItemGroup:

Add to project’s gemfile

In your project’s package.json, add requirement to dependencies:

断言

		String title = driver.getTitle();
		assertEquals("Web form", title);
    title = driver.title
    assert title == "Web form"
            var title = driver.Title;
            Assert.AreEqual("Web form", title);
    title = @driver.title
    expect(title).to eq('Web form')
      let title = await driver.getTitle();
      assert.equal("Web form", title);

Setting Up and Tearing Down

Set Up

	@BeforeEach
	public void setup() {
		driver = new ChromeDriver();
	}

Tear Down

	@AfterEach
	public void teardown() {
		driver.quit();
	}

Set Up

  before do
    @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
  end

Tear Down

  config.after { @driver&.quit }
### Set Up
    before(async function () {
      driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
    });
### Tear Down
    after(async () => await driver.quit());

执行

Maven

mvn clean test

Gradle

gradle clean test

Mocha

mocha runningTests.spec.js

npx

npx mocha runningTests.spec.js

示例

第一个脚本一节中,我们了解了 Selenium 脚本的每一个组件。这里是使用 test runner 重新组织那个脚本的一个示例:

package dev.selenium.getting_started;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;

import java.time.Duration;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.AfterEach;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.BeforeEach;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class UsingSeleniumTest {

	WebDriver driver;

	@BeforeEach
	public void setup() {
		driver = new ChromeDriver();
	}

	@Test
	public void eightComponents() {

		driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500));
		driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");

		String title = driver.getTitle();
		assertEquals("Web form", title);

		WebElement textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"));
		WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"));

		textBox.sendKeys("Selenium");
		submitButton.click();

		WebElement message = driver.findElement(By.id("message"));
		String value = message.getText();
		assertEquals("Received!", value);

	}

	@AfterEach
	public void teardown() {
		driver.quit();
	}

}
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By


def test_eight_components():
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()

    driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

    title = driver.title
    assert title == "Web form"

    driver.implicitly_wait(0.5)

    text_box = driver.find_element(by=By.NAME, value="my-text")
    submit_button = driver.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value="button")

    text_box.send_keys("Selenium")
    submit_button.click()

    message = driver.find_element(by=By.ID, value="message")
    value = message.text
    assert value == "Received!"

    driver.quit()
using System;
using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace SeleniumDocs.GettingStarted
{
    [TestClass]
    public class UsingSeleniumTest
    {

        [TestMethod]
        public void EightComponents()
        {
            IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

            driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");

            var title = driver.Title;
            Assert.AreEqual("Web form", title);

            driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(500);

            var textBox = driver.FindElement(By.Name("my-text"));
            var submitButton = driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button"));
            
            textBox.SendKeys("Selenium");
            submitButton.Click();
            
            var message = driver.FindElement(By.Id("message"));
            var value = message.Text;
            Assert.AreEqual("Received!", value);
            
            driver.Quit();
        }
    }
}
# frozen_string_literal: true
require 'spec_helper'
require 'selenium-webdriver'


RSpec.describe 'Using Selenium' do
  before do
    @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
  end

  it 'uses eight components' do
    @driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html')

    title = @driver.title
    expect(title).to eq('Web form')

    @driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 500

    text_box = @driver.find_element(name: 'my-text')
    submit_button = @driver.find_element(tag_name: 'button')

    text_box.send_keys('Selenium')
    submit_button.click

    message = @driver.find_element(id: 'message')
    value = message.text
    expect(value).to eq('Received!')
  end
end
const {By, Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');
const assert = require("assert");

  describe('First script', function () {
    let driver;
    
    before(async function () {
      driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
    });
    
    it('First Selenium script with mocha', async function () {
      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html');
      
      let title = await driver.getTitle();
      assert.equal("Web form", title);
      
      await driver.manage().setTimeouts({implicit: 500});
      
      let textBox = await driver.findElement(By.name('my-text'));
      let submitButton = await driver.findElement(By.css('button'));
      
      await textBox.sendKeys('Selenium');
      await submitButton.click();
      
      let message = await driver.findElement(By.id('message'));
      let value = await message.getText();
      assert.equal("Received!", value);
    });
  
    after(async () => await driver.quit());
  });

下一步

使用你目前所学到的知识建立你自己的 Selenium 代码吧!

想要了解更多的功能特性,请继续阅读我们接下来的WebDriver 教程

2.2 - 驱动会话

启动和停止会话, 用于打开和关闭浏览器.

创建会话

创建会话对应于W3C的命令 新建会话

会话是通过初始化新的驱动类对象自动创建的.

每种语言都允许使用来自这些类 (或等效类) 之一的参数创建会话:

本地驱动

启动本地驱动的首要唯一参数 包括在本地计算机上有关启动所需驱动服务的信息.

  • 服务 对象仅适用于本地驱动,并提供有关浏览器驱动的信息
      driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome, options: options

远程驱动

用于启动远程驱动的首要唯一参数包括有关在何处执行代码的信息. 请浏览 远程驱动章节中的详细信息

退出会话

退出会话对应于W3C的命令 删除会话.

重要提示: quit 方法与 close 方法不同, 建议始终使用 quit 来结束会话

2.2.1 - 浏览器选项

这些capabilities用于所有浏览器.

在 Selenium 3 中, capabilities是借助"Desired Capabilities"类定义于会话中的. 从 Selenium 4 开始, 您必须使用浏览器选项类. 对于远程驱动程序会话, 浏览器选项实例是必需的, 因为它确定将使用哪个浏览器.

这些选项在 Capabilities 的 w3c 规范中进行了描述.

每个浏览器都有 自定义选项 , 是规范定义之外的内容.

browserName

默认情况下,使用 Options 类实例时会设置浏览器名称.

browserVersion

此功能是可选的,用于在远程端设置可用的浏览器版本. 在最新版本的 Selenium 中,如果在系统上找不到该版本, 它将被 Selenium Manager 自动下载

pageLoadStrategy

共有三种类型的页面加载策略.

页面加载策略可以在此链接查询 document.readyState , 如下表所述:

策略就绪状态备注
normalcomplete默认值, 等待所有资源下载
eagerinteractiveDOM 访问已准备就绪, 但诸如图像的其他资源可能仍在加载
noneAny完全不会阻塞 WebDriver

文档的 document.readyState 属性描述当前文档的加载状态.

当通过URL导航到新页面时, 默认情况下, WebDriver将暂缓完成导航方法 (例如, driver.navigate().get())直到文档就绪状态完成. 这 并非意味着该页面已完成加载, 特别是对于使用 JavaScript 在就绪状态返回完成后 动态加载内容单页应用程序的站点. 另请注意此行为不适用于单击元素或提交表单后出现的导航行为.

如果由于下载对自动化不重要的资源(例如, 图像、css、js) 而需要很长时间才能加载页面, 您可以将默认参数normal更改为 eagernone 以加快会话加载速度. 此值适用于整个会话, 因此请确保您的 等待策略 足够普适.

normal (默认值)

WebDriver一直等到 load 事件触发并返回.

    ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
    chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.NORMAL);
    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
    options.page_load_strategy = 'normal'
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace pageLoadStrategy {
  class pageLoadStrategy {
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      var chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
      chromeOptions.PageLoadStrategy = PageLoadStrategy.Normal;
      IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
      try {
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
      } finally {
        driver.Quit();
      }
    }
  }
}
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.page_load_strategy = :normal
    it('Navigate using normal page loading strategy', async function () {
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setPageLoadStrategy('normal'))
        .build();

      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/blank.html');
import org.openqa.selenium.PageLoadStrategy
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions

fun main() {
  val chromeOptions = ChromeOptions()
  chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.NORMAL)
  val driver = ChromeDriver(chromeOptions)
  try {
    driver.get("https://www.google.com")
  }
  finally {
    driver.quit()
  }
}

eager

WebDriver一直等到 DOMContentLoaded 事件触发并返回.

    ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
    chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.EAGER);
    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
    options.page_load_strategy = 'eager'
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace pageLoadStrategy {
  class pageLoadStrategy {
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      var chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
      chromeOptions.PageLoadStrategy = PageLoadStrategy.Eager;
      IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
      try {
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
      } finally {
        driver.Quit();
      }
    }
  }
}
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.page_load_strategy = :eager
    it('Navigate using eager page loading strategy', async function () {
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setPageLoadStrategy('eager'))
        .build();

      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/blank.html');
import org.openqa.selenium.PageLoadStrategy
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions

fun main() {
  val chromeOptions = ChromeOptions()
  chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.EAGER)
  val driver = ChromeDriver(chromeOptions)
  try {
    driver.get("https://www.google.com")
  }
  finally {
    driver.quit()
  }
}

none

WebDriver 仅等待初始页面已下载.

    ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
    chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.NONE);
    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
    options.page_load_strategy = 'none'
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace pageLoadStrategy {
  class pageLoadStrategy {
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      var chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
      chromeOptions.PageLoadStrategy = PageLoadStrategy.None;
      IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
      try {
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
      } finally {
        driver.Quit();
      }
    }
  }
}
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.page_load_strategy = :none
    it('Navigate using none page loading strategy', async function () {
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setPageLoadStrategy('none'))
        .build();

      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/blank.html');
import org.openqa.selenium.PageLoadStrategy
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions

fun main() {
  val chromeOptions = ChromeOptions()
  chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.NONE)
  val driver = ChromeDriver(chromeOptions)
  try {
    driver.get("https://www.google.com")
  }
  finally {
    driver.quit()
  }
}

platformName

这标识了远端的操作系统, 获取 platformName 将返回操作系统的名称.

在基于云的供应者中, 设置 platformName 将在远程端设置操作系统.

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.firefox
      options.platform_name = 'Windows 10'

acceptInsecureCerts

此功能检查在会话期间导航时 是否使用了过期的 (或) 无效的 TLS Certificate .

如果将功能设置为 false, 则页面浏览遇到任何域证书问题时, 将返回insecure certificate error . 如果设置为 true, 则浏览器将信任无效证书.

默认情况下, 此功能将信任所有自签名证书. 设置后, acceptInsecureCerts 功能将在整个会话中生效.

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.accept_insecure_certs = true
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setAcceptInsecureCerts(true))
        .build();

timeouts

WebDriver session 具有一定的 session timeout 间隔, 在此间隔内, 用户可以控制执行脚本或从浏览器检索信息的行为.

每个会话超时都配置有不同 timeouts 的组合, 如下所述:

Script Timeout:

指定在当前浏览上下文中, 中断正在执行脚本的时机. WebDriver创建新会话时, 将设置默认的超时时间为 30,000 .

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.timeouts = {script: 40_000}

Page Load Timeout:

指定在当前浏览上下文中, 加载网页的时间间隔. WebDriver创建新会话时, 默认设置超时时间为 300,000 . 如果页面加载限制了给定 (或默认) 的时间范围, 则该脚本将被 TimeoutException 停止.

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.timeouts = {page_load: 400_000}

Implicit Wait Timeout

指定在定位元素时, 等待隐式元素定位策略的时间. WebDriver创建新会话时, 将设置默认超时时间为 0 .

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.timeouts = {implicit: 1}

unhandledPromptBehavior

指定当前会话 user prompt handler 的状态. 默认为 dismiss and notify state .

User Prompt Handler

这定义了在远端出现用户提示时必须采取的措施. 该行为由unhandledPromptBehavior 功能定义, 具有以下状态:

  • dismiss
  • accept
  • dismiss and notify
  • accept and notify
  • ignore
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.unhandled_prompt_behavior = :accept

setWindowRect

用于所有支持 调整大小和重新定位 命令 的远程终端.

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.firefox
      options.set_window_rect = true

strictFileInteractability

新功能用于是否对 类型为文件的输入(input type=file) 元素进行严格的交互性检查. 默认关闭严格性检查, 在将 元素的Send Keys 方法作用于隐藏的文件上传时, 会有控制方面的行为区别.

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.strict_file_interactability = true

proxy

代理服务器充当客户端和服务器之间的请求中介. 简述而言, 流量将通过代理服务器流向您请求的地址, 然后返回.

使用代理服务器用于Selenium的自动化脚本, 可能对以下方面有益:

  • 捕获网络流量
  • 模拟网站后端响应
  • 在复杂的网络拓扑结构或严格的公司限制/政策下访问目标站点.

如果您在公司环境中, 并且浏览器无法连接到URL, 则最有可能是因为环境, 需要借助代理进行访问.

Selenium WebDriver提供了如下设置代理的方法

Move Code

import org.openqa.selenium.Proxy;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions;

public class ProxyTest {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    Proxy proxy = new Proxy();
    proxy.setHttpProxy("<HOST:PORT>");
    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    options.setCapability("proxy", proxy);
    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
    driver.get("https://www.google.com/");
    driver.manage().window().maximize();
    driver.quit();
  }
}
from selenium import webdriver

PROXY = "<HOST:PORT>"
webdriver.DesiredCapabilities.FIREFOX['proxy'] = {
"httpProxy": PROXY,
"ftpProxy": PROXY,
"sslProxy": PROXY,
"proxyType": "MANUAL",

}

with webdriver.Firefox() as driver:
    driver.get("https://selenium.dev")
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

public class ProxyTest{
public static void Main() {
ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
Proxy proxy = new Proxy();
proxy.Kind = ProxyKind.Manual;
proxy.IsAutoDetect = false;
proxy.SslProxy = "<HOST:PORT>";
options.Proxy = proxy;
options.AddArgument("ignore-certificate-errors");
IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/");
}
}
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.proxy = Selenium::WebDriver::Proxy.new(http: 'myproxy.com:8080')
let webdriver = require('selenium-webdriver');
let chrome = require('selenium-webdriver/chrome');
let proxy = require('selenium-webdriver/proxy');
let opts = new chrome.Options();

(async function example() {
opts.setProxy(proxy.manual({http: '<HOST:PORT>'}));
let driver = new webdriver.Builder()
.forBrowser('chrome')
.setChromeOptions(opts)
.build();
try {
await driver.get("https://selenium.dev");
}
finally {
await driver.quit();
}
}());
import org.openqa.selenium.Proxy
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions

class proxyTest {
fun main() {

        val proxy = Proxy()
        proxy.setHttpProxy("<HOST:PORT>")
        val options = ChromeOptions()
        options.setCapability("proxy", proxy)
        val driver: WebDriver = ChromeDriver(options)
        driver["https://www.google.com/"]
        driver.manage().window().maximize()
        driver.quit()
    }
}

2.2.2 - HTTP Client Configuration

允许您为HTTP库设置各种参数.

    client = Selenium::WebDriver::Remote::Http::Default.new(open_timeout: 30, read_timeout: 30)
    expect(client.open_timeout).to eq 30

2.2.3 - 驱动服务类

服务类用于管理驱动程序的启动和停止. 它们不能与远程 WebDriver 会话一起使用.

服务类允许您指定有关驱动程序的信息, 诸如位置和要使用的端口. 它们还允许您指定传递哪些参数到命令行. 大多数有用的参数都与日志记录有关.

默认服务实例

使用默认服务实例启动驱动程序:

    driver = new ChromeDriver(service);
  }

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService()
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(service=service)
            var service = ChromeDriverService.CreateDefaultService();
            driver = new ChromeDriver(service);
    service = Selenium::WebDriver::Service.chrome
    @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome, service: service

驱动程序位置

注意: 如果您使用的是 Selenium 4.6 或更高版本, 则无需设置驱动程序位置. 如果您无法更新 Selenium 或有高阶用法需求, 以下是指定驱动程序位置的方法:

        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().usingDriverExecutable(driverPath).build();

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(executable_path=chromedriver_bin)

Selenium v4.9

            var service = ChromeDriverService.CreateDefaultService(GetDriverLocation(options));

Selenium v4.8

    service.executable_path = driver_path

驱动程序端口

如果希望驱动程序在特定端口上运行, 您可以在启动时指定端口号, 如下所示:

日志

日志记录功能因浏览器而异. 大多数浏览器都允许您指定日志的位置和级别. 请查看相应的浏览器页面:

2.2.4 - 远程WebDriver

Selenium lets you automate browsers on remote computers if there is a Selenium Grid running on them. The computer that executes the code is referred to as the client computer, and the computer with the browser and driver is referred to as the remote computer or sometimes as an end-node. To direct Selenium tests to the remote computer, you need to use a Remote WebDriver class and pass the URL including the port of the grid on that machine. Please see the grid documentation for all the various ways the grid can be configured.

Basic Example

The driver needs to know where to send commands to and which browser to start on the Remote computer. So an address and an options instance are both required.

    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    driver = new RemoteWebDriver(gridUrl, options);

@pytest.mark.skipif(sys.platform == "win32", reason="Gets stuck on Windows, passes locally")
            var options = new ChromeOptions();
            driver = new RemoteWebDriver(GridUrl, options);
    options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :remote, url: grid_url, options: options

Uploads

Uploading a file is more complicated for Remote WebDriver sessions because the file you want to upload is likely on the computer executing the code, but the driver on the remote computer is looking for the provided path on its local file system. The solution is to use a Local File Detector. When one is set, Selenium will bundle the file, and send it to the remote machine, so the driver can see the reference to it. Some bindings include a basic local file detector by default, and all of them allow for a custom file detector.

Java does not include a Local File Detector by default, so you must always add one to do uploads.
    ((RemoteWebDriver) driver).setFileDetector(new LocalFileDetector());
    WebElement fileInput = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("input[type=file]"));
    fileInput.sendKeys(uploadFile.getAbsolutePath());
    driver.findElement(By.id("file-submit")).click();

Python adds a local file detector to remote webdriver instances by default, but you can also create your own class.

    driver.get("https://the-internet.herokuapp.com/upload")
    upload_file = os.path.abspath(
        os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), "..", "selenium-snapshot.png"))
.NET adds a local file detector to remote webdriver instances by default, but you can also create your own class.
            ((RemoteWebDriver)driver).FileDetector = new LocalFileDetector();
            IWebElement fileInput = driver.FindElement(By.CssSelector("input[type=file]"));
            fileInput.SendKeys(uploadFile);
            driver.FindElement(By.Id("file-submit")).Click();
Ruby adds a local file detector to remote webdriver instances by default, but you can also create your own lambda:
    driver.file_detector = ->((filename, *)) { filename.include?('selenium') && filename }
    file_input = driver.find_element(css: 'input[type=file]')
    file_input.send_keys(upload_file)
    driver.find_element(id: 'file-submit').click

Downloads

Chrome, Edge and Firefox each allow you to set the location of the download directory. When you do this on a remote computer, though, the location is on the remote computer’s local file system. Selenium allows you to enable downloads to get these files onto the client computer.

Enable Downloads in the Grid

Regardless of the client, when starting the grid in node or standalone mode, you must add the flag:

--enable-managed-downloads true

Enable Downloads in the Client

The grid uses the se:downloadsEnabled capability to toggle whether to be responsible for managing the browser location. Each of the bindings have a method in the options class to set this.

    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    options.setEnableDownloads(true);
    driver = new RemoteWebDriver(gridUrl, options);
    assert file_name == "selenium-snapshot.png"

            ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions
            {
                EnableDownloads = true
            };

            driver = new RemoteWebDriver(GridUrl, options);
    options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome(enable_downloads: true)
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :remote, url: grid_url, options: options

List Downloadable Files

Be aware that Selenium is not waiting for files to finish downloading, so the list is an immediate snapshot of what file names are currently in the directory for the given session.

    List<String> files = ((HasDownloads) driver).getDownloadableFiles();
    driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/downloads/download.html')
            IReadOnlyList<string> names = ((RemoteWebDriver)driver).GetDownloadableFiles();
    files = driver.downloadable_files

Download a File

Selenium looks for the name of the provided file in the list and downloads it to the provided target directory.

    ((HasDownloads) driver).downloadFile(downloadableFile, targetDirectory);
            ((RemoteWebDriver)driver).DownloadFile(downloadableFile, targetDirectory);
    driver.download_file(downloadable_file, target_directory)

Delete Downloaded Files

By default, the download directory is deleted at the end of the applicable session, but you can also delete all files during the session.

    ((HasDownloads) driver).deleteDownloadableFiles();
            ((RemoteWebDriver)driver).DeleteDownloadableFiles();
    driver.delete_downloadable_files

Browser specific functionalities

Each browser has implemented special functionality that is available only to that browser. Each of the Selenium bindings has implemented a different way to use those features in a Remote Session

Java requires you to use the Augmenter class, which allows it to automatically pull in implementations for all interfaces that match the capabilities used with the RemoteWebDriver

    driver = new Augmenter().augment(driver);

Of interest, using the RemoteWebDriverBuilder automatically augments the driver, so it is a great way to get all the functionality by default:

        RemoteWebDriver.builder()
            .address(gridUrl)
            .oneOf(new ChromeOptions())
            .setCapability("ext:options", Map.of("key", "value"))
            .config(ClientConfig.defaultConfig())
            .build();
.NET uses a custom command executor for executing commands that are valid for the given browser in the remote driver.
            var customCommandDriver = driver as ICustomDriverCommandExecutor;
            customCommandDriver.RegisterCustomDriverCommands(FirefoxDriver.CustomCommandDefinitions);

            var screenshotResponse = customCommandDriver
                .ExecuteCustomDriverCommand(FirefoxDriver.GetFullPageScreenshotCommand, null);
Ruby uses mixins to add applicable browser specific methods to the Remote WebDriver session; the methods should always just work for you.

追踪客户端请求

此功能仅适用于Java客户端绑定 (Beta版以后). 远程WebDriver客户端向Selenium网格服务器发送请求, 后者将请求传递给WebDriver. 应该在服务器端和客户端启用跟踪, 以便端到端地追踪HTTP请求. 两端都应该有一个指向可视化框架的追踪导出器设置. 默认情况下, 对客户端和服务器都启用追踪. 若设置可视化框架Jaeger UI及Selenium Grid 4, 请参阅所需版本的追踪设置 .

对于客户端设置, 请执行以下步骤.

添加所需依赖

可以使用Maven安装追踪导出器的外部库. 在项目pom.xml中添加 opentelemetry-exporter-jaegergrpc-netty 的依赖项:

  <dependency>
      <groupId>io.opentelemetry</groupId>
      <artifactId>opentelemetry-exporter-jaeger</artifactId>
      <version>1.0.0</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.grpc</groupId>
      <artifactId>grpc-netty</artifactId>
      <version>1.35.0</version>
    </dependency>

在运行客户端时添加/传递所需的系统属性

System.setProperty("otel.traces.exporter", "jaeger");
System.setProperty("otel.exporter.jaeger.endpoint", "http://localhost:14250");
System.setProperty("otel.resource.attributes", "service.name=selenium-java-client");

ImmutableCapabilities capabilities = new ImmutableCapabilities("browserName", "chrome");

WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("http://www.example.com"), capabilities);

driver.get("http://www.google.com");

driver.quit();

  

有关所需Selenium版本 及其外部依赖关系版本等更多信息, 请参阅追踪设置 .

更多信息请访问:

2.3 - 支持的浏览器列表

每个浏览器都有定制和特有的功能。

2.3.1 - Chrome specific functionality

These are capabilities and features specific to Google Chrome browsers.

默认情况下,Selenium 4与Chrome v75及更高版本兼容. 但是请注意Chrome浏览器的版本与chromedriver的主版本需要匹配.

Options

所有浏览器的通用功能请看这 Options page.

Chrome浏览器的特有功能可以在谷歌的页面找到: Capabilities & ChromeOptions

基于默认选项的Chrome浏览器会话看起来是这样:

    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
            var options = new ChromeOptions();
            driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome, options: options
      const Options = new Chrome.Options();
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(Options)
        .build();

下面是一些不同功能的常见示例:

参数

The args parameter is for a list of command line switches to be used when starting the browser. There are two excellent resources for investigating these arguments:

Commonly used args include --start-maximized, --headless=new and --user-data-dir=...

Add an argument to options:

    options.addArguments("--start-maximized");
    options.add_argument("--start-maximized")
            options.AddArgument("--start-maximized");
      options.args << '--start-maximized'
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.addArguments('--headless=new'))
        .build();

从指定位置启动浏览器

binary 参数接收一个使用浏览器的备用路径,通过这个参数你可以使用chromedriver 去驱动各种基于Chromium 内核的浏览器.

添加一个浏览器地址到选项中:

    options.setBinary(getChromeLocation());
    options.binary_location = chrome_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetChromeLocation();
      options.binary = chrome_location
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setChromeBinaryPath(`Path to chrome binary`))
        .build();

添加扩展程序

extensions 参数接受crx文件. As for unpacked directories, please use the load-extension argument instead, as mentioned in this post.

添加一个扩展程序到选项中:

    options.addExtensions(extensionFilePath);
    options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
            options.AddExtension(extensionFilePath);
      options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
      const options = new Chrome.Options();
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.addExtensions(['./test/resources/extensions/webextensions-selenium-example.crx']))
        .build();

保持浏览器的打开状态

detach 参数设置为true将在驱动过程结束后保持浏览器的打开状态.

添加一个布尔值到选项中:

Note: This is already the default behavior in Java.

    options.add_experimental_option("detach", True)

Note: This is already the default behavior in .NET.

      options.detach = true
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.detachDriver(true))
        .build();

排除的参数

Chrome 添加了各种参数,如果你不希望添加某些参数,可以将其传入 excludeSwitches. 一个常见的例子是重新打开弹出窗口阻止程序. A full list of default arguments can be parsed from the Chromium Source Code

设置排除参数至选项中:

    options.setExperimentalOption("excludeSwitches", List.of("disable-popup-blocking"));
    options.add_experimental_option('excludeSwitches', ['disable-popup-blocking'])
            options.AddExcludedArgument("disable-popup-blocking");
      options.exclude_switches << 'disable-popup-blocking'
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.excludeSwitches('enable-automation'))
        .build();

Service

Examples for creating a default Service object, and for setting driver location and port can be found on the Driver Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(log_output=log_path)
            service.LogPath = GetLogLocation();

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

$stdout and $stderr are both valid values

Selenium v4.10

      service.log = $stdout

Log level

There are 6 available log levels: ALL, DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, SEVERE, and OFF. Note that --verbose is equivalent to --log-level=ALL and --silent is equivalent to --log-level=OFF, so this example is just setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogLevel(ChromiumDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of ChromiumDriverLogLevel enum

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--log-level=DEBUG'], log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-level=DEBUG'

Log file features

There are 2 features that are only available when logging to a file:

  • append log
  • readable timestamps

To use them, you need to also explicitly specify the log path and log level. The log output will be managed by the driver, not the process, so minor differences may be seen.

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withAppendLog(true).withReadableTimestamp(true).build();

Note: Java also allows toggling these features by System Property:
Property keys: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_APPEND_LOG_PROPERTY and ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_READABLE_TIMESTAMP
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--append-log', '--readable-timestamp'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--append-log'
      service.args << '--readable-timestamp'

Disabling build check

Chromedriver and Chrome browser versions should match, and if they don’t the driver will error. If you disable the build check, you can force the driver to be used with any version of Chrome. Note that this is an unsupported feature, and bugs will not be investigated.

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withBuildCheckDisabled(true).build();

Note: Java also allows disabling build checks by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_DISABLE_BUILD_CHECK
Property value: "true" or "false"

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--disable-build-check'], log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)
            service.DisableBuildCheck = true;

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--disable-build-check'

Special Features

Casting

你可以驱动 Chrome Cast 设备,包括共享选项卡

      sinks = @driver.cast_sinks
      unless sinks.empty?
        device_name = sinks.first['name']
        @driver.start_cast_tab_mirroring(device_name)
        expect { @driver.stop_casting(device_name) }.not_to raise_exception
      end

网络条件

您可以模拟各种网络条件.

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

      @driver.network_conditions = {offline: false, latency: 100, throughput: 200}

Logs

Permissions

      @driver.add_permission('camera', 'denied')
      @driver.add_permissions('clipboard-read' => 'denied', 'clipboard-write' => 'prompt')

DevTools

See the [Chrome DevTools] section for more information about using Chrome DevTools

2.3.2 - Edge 特定功能

这些是特定于微软Edge浏览器的功能和特性.

微软Edge是用Chromium实现的,最早支持版本是v79. 与Chrome类似, Edge驱动的主版本号必须与Edge浏览器的主要版本匹配.

Chrome 页面 上找到的所有capabilities和选项也适用于Edge.

选项

Capabilities common to all browsers are described on the Options page.

Capabilities unique to Chromium are documented at Google’s page for Capabilities & ChromeOptions

使用基本定义的选项启动 Edge 会话如下所示:

    EdgeOptions options = new EdgeOptions();
    driver = new EdgeDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.EdgeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Edge(options=options)
            var options = new EdgeOptions();
            driver = new EdgeDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.edge
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :edge, options: options
      driver = await env.builder()
        .setEdgeOptions(options)
        .build();
    });

Arguments

The args parameter is for a list of command line switches to be used when starting the browser. There are two excellent resources for investigating these arguments:

Commonly used args include --start-maximized and --headless=new and --user-data-dir=...

Add an argument to options:

    options.addArguments("--start-maximized");
    options.add_argument("--start-maximized")
            options.AddArgument("--start-maximized");
      options.args << '--start-maximized'
        .setEdgeOptions(options.addArguments('--headless=new'))

Start browser in a specified location

The binary parameter takes the path of an alternate location of browser to use. With this parameter you can use chromedriver to drive various Chromium based browsers.

Add a browser location to options:

    options.setBinary(getEdgeLocation());
    options.binary_location = edge_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetEdgeLocation();
      options.binary = edge_location

Add extensions

The extensions parameter accepts crx files. As for unpacked directories, please use the load-extension argument instead, as mentioned in this post.

Add an extension to options:

    options.addExtensions(extensionFilePath);
    options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
            options.AddExtension(extensionFilePath);
      options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
        .setEdgeOptions(options.addExtensions(['./test/resources/extensions/webextensions-selenium-example.crx']))

Keeping browser open

Setting the detach parameter to true will keep the browser open after the process has ended, so long as the quit command is not sent to the driver.

Note: This is already the default behavior in Java.

    options.add_experimental_option("detach", True)

Note: This is already the default behavior in .NET.

      options.detach = true
        .setEdgeOptions(options.detachDriver(true))

Excluding arguments

MSEdgedriver has several default arguments it uses to start the browser. If you do not want those arguments added, pass them into excludeSwitches. A common example is to turn the popup blocker back on. A full list of default arguments can be parsed from the Chromium Source Code

Set excluded arguments on options:

    options.setExperimentalOption("excludeSwitches", List.of("disable-popup-blocking"));
    options.add_experimental_option('excludeSwitches', ['disable-popup-blocking'])
            options.AddExcludedArgument("disable-popup-blocking");
      options.exclude_switches << 'disable-popup-blocking'
    });
  });
}, { browsers: [Browser.EDGE]});

Service

Examples for creating a default Service object, and for setting driver location and port can be found on the Driver Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

Selenium v4.10

    EdgeDriverService service = new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(log_output=log_path)
            service.LogPath = GetLogLocation();

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

    EdgeDriverService service = new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

$stdout and $stderr are both valid values

Selenium v4.10

      service.log = $stdout

Log level

There are 6 available log levels: ALL, DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, SEVERE, and OFF. Note that --verbose is equivalent to --log-level=ALL and --silent is equivalent to --log-level=OFF, so this example is just setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLoglevel(ChromiumDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of ChromiumDriverLogLevel enum

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--log-level=DEBUG'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-level=DEBUG'

Log file features

There are 2 features that are only available when logging to a file:

  • append log
  • readable timestamps

To use them, you need to also explicitly specify the log path and log level. The log output will be managed by the driver, not the process, so minor differences may be seen.

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withAppendLog(true).withReadableTimestamp(true).build();

Note: Java also allows toggling these features by System Property:
Property keys: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_APPEND_LOG_PROPERTY and EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_READABLE_TIMESTAMP
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--append-log', '--readable-timestamp'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--append-log'
      service.args << '--readable-timestamp'

Disabling build check

Edge browser and msedgedriver versions should match, and if they don’t the driver will error. If you disable the build check, you can force the driver to be used with any version of Edge. Note that this is an unsupported feature, and bugs will not be investigated.

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withBuildCheckDisabled(true).build();

Note: Java also allows disabling build checks by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_DISABLE_BUILD_CHECK
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--disable-build-check'], log_output=log_path)
            service.DisableBuildCheck = true;

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--disable-build-check'

Internet Explorer 兼容模式

微软Edge可以被"Internet Explorer兼容模式"驱动, 该模式使用Internet Explorer驱动类与微软Edge结合使用. 阅读 Internet Explorer 页面 了解更多详情.

Special Features

Some browsers have implemented additional features that are unique to them.

Casting

You can drive Chrome Cast devices with Edge, including sharing tabs

      sinks = @driver.cast_sinks
      unless sinks.empty?
        device_name = sinks.first['name']
        @driver.start_cast_tab_mirroring(device_name)
        expect { @driver.stop_casting(device_name) }.not_to raise_exception

Network conditions

You can simulate various network conditions.

      @driver.network_conditions = {offline: false, latency: 100, throughput: 200}

Logs

Permissions

      @driver.add_permission('camera', 'denied')
      @driver.add_permissions('clipboard-read' => 'denied', 'clipboard-write' => 'prompt')

DevTools

See the [Chrome DevTools] section for more information about using DevTools in Edge

2.3.3 - Firefox specific functionality

These are capabilities and features specific to Mozilla Firefox browsers.

Selenium 4 requires Firefox 78 or greater. It is recommended to always use the latest version of geckodriver.

Options

Capabilities common to all browsers are described on the Options page.

Capabilities unique to Firefox can be found at Mozilla’s page for firefoxOptions

Starting a Firefox session with basic defined options looks like this:

    FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
    driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.FirefoxOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(options=options)
            var options = new FirefoxOptions();
            driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.firefox
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox, options: options
      let options = new firefox.Options();
      driver = await env.builder()
        .setFirefoxOptions(options)
        .build();

Here are a few common use cases with different capabilities:

Arguments

The args parameter is for a list of Command line switches used when starting the browser.
Commonly used args include -headless and "-profile", "/path/to/profile"

Add an argument to options:

    options.addArguments("-headless");
    options.add_argument("-headless")
            options.AddArgument("-headless");
      options.args << '-headless'
    let driver = await env.builder()
      .setFirefoxOptions(options.addArguments('--headless'))
      .build();

Start browser in a specified location

The binary parameter takes the path of an alternate location of browser to use. For example, with this parameter you can use geckodriver to drive Firefox Nightly instead of the production version when both are present on your computer.

Add a browser location to options:

    options.setBinary(getFirefoxLocation());
    options.binary_location = firefox_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetFirefoxLocation();
      options.binary = firefox_location

Profiles

There are several ways to work with Firefox profiles

FirefoxProfile profile = new FirefoxProfile();
FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
options.setProfile(profile);
driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.options import Options
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile import FirefoxProfile
options=Options()
firefox_profile = FirefoxProfile()
firefox_profile.set_preference("javascript.enabled", False)
options.profile = firefox_profile
  
var options = new FirefoxOptions();
var profile = new FirefoxProfile();
options.Profile = profile;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
      profile = Selenium::WebDriver::Firefox::Profile.new
          profile['browser.download.dir'] = '/tmp/webdriver-downloads'
          options = Selenium::WebDriver::Firefox::Options.new(profile: profile)
const { Builder } = require("selenium-webdriver");
const firefox = require('selenium-webdriver/firefox');

const options = new firefox.Options();
let profile = '/path to custom profile';
options.setProfile(profile);
const driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('firefox')
    .setFirefoxOptions(options)
    .build();
  
val options = FirefoxOptions()
options.profile = FirefoxProfile()
driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging various issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=log_path, service_args=['--log', 'debug'])

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Log level

There are 7 available log levels: fatal, error, warn, info, config, debug, trace. If logging is specified the level defaults to info.

Note that -v is equivalent to -log debug and -vv is equivalent to log trace, so this examples is just for setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogLevel(FirefoxDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of FirefoxDriverLogLevel enum

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=log_path, service_args=['--log', 'debug'])

Selenium v4.10

      service.args += %w[--log debug]

Truncated Logs

The driver logs everything that gets sent to it, including string representations of large binaries, so Firefox truncates lines by default. To turn off truncation:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withTruncatedLogs(false).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_NO_TRUNCATE
Property value: "true" or "false"

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(service_args=['--log-no-truncate', '--log', 'debug'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-no-truncate'

Profile Root

The default directory for profiles is the system temporary directory. If you do not have access to that directory, or want profiles to be created some place specific, you can change the profile root directory:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withProfileRoot(profileDirectory).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_PROFILE_ROOT
Property value: String representing path to profile root directory

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(service_args=['--profile-root', temp_dir])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args += ['--profile-root', root_directory]

Special Features

Add-ons

Unlike Chrome, Firefox extensions are not added as part of capabilities as mentioned in this issue, they are created after starting the driver.

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

Installation

A signed xpi file you would get from Mozilla Addon page

    driver.install_addon(addon_path_xpi)
            driver.InstallAddOnFromFile(Path.GetFullPath(extensionFilePath));
      driver.install_addon(extension_file_path)
    const xpiPath = path.resolve('./test/resources/extensions/selenium-example.xpi')
    let driver = await env.builder().build();
    let id = await driver.installAddon(xpiPath);

Uninstallation

Uninstalling an addon requires knowing its id. The id can be obtained from the return value when installing the add-on.

    String id = driver.installExtension(xpiPath);
    driver.uninstall_addon(id)

Selenium v4.5

            driver.UninstallAddOn(extensionId);
      driver.uninstall_addon(extension_id)
    await driver.uninstallAddon(id);

Unsigned installation

When working with an unfinished or unpublished extension, it will likely not be signed. As such, it can only be installed as “temporary.” This can be done by passing in either a zip file or a directory, here’s an example with a directory:

    driver = startFirefoxDriver();
    driver.install_addon(addon_path_dir, temporary=True)

Selenium v4.5

            driver.InstallAddOnFromDirectory(Path.GetFullPath(extensionDirPath), true);

Selenium v4.5

      driver.install_addon(extension_dir_path, true)
    const xpiPath = path.resolve('./test/resources/extensions/selenium-example')
    let driver = await env.builder().build();
    let id = await driver.installAddon(xpiPath, true);

Full page screenshots

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

        screenshot = driver.save_full_page_screenshot(File.join(dir, 'screenshot.png'))

Context

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

2.3.4 - IE specific functionality

These are capabilities and features specific to Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers.

As of June 2022, Selenium officially no longer supports standalone Internet Explorer. The Internet Explorer driver still supports running Microsoft Edge in “IE Compatibility Mode.”

Special considerations

The IE Driver is the only driver maintained by the Selenium Project directly. While binaries for both the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Internet Explorer are available, there are some known limitations with the 64-bit driver. As such it is recommended to use the 32-bit driver.

Additional information about using Internet Explorer can be found on the IE Driver Server page

Options

Starting a Microsoft Edge browser in Internet Explorer Compatibility mode with basic defined options looks like this:

        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.attachToEdgeChrome();
        options.withEdgeExecutablePath(getEdgeLocation());
        driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.IeOptions()
    options.attach_to_edge_chrome = True
    options.edge_executable_path = edge_bin
    driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)
            var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
            options.AttachToEdgeChrome = true;
            options.EdgeExecutablePath = GetEdgeLocation();
            _driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
      options.attach_to_edge_chrome = true
      options.edge_executable_path = edge_location
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :ie, options: options

As of Internet Explorer Driver v4.5.0:

  • If IE is not present on the system (default in Windows 11), you do not need to use the two parameters above. IE Driver will use Edge and will automatically locate it.
  • If IE and Edge are both present on the system, you only need to set attaching to Edge, IE Driver will automatically locate Edge on your system.

So, if IE is not on the system, you only need:

        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.IeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)
            var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
            _driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.ie
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :ie, options: options
let driver = await new Builder()
.forBrowser('internet explorer')
.setIEOptions(options)
.build();
<p><a href=/documentation/about/contributing/#moving-examples>
<span class="selenium-badge-code" data-bs-toggle="tooltip" data-bs-placement="right"
      title="One or more of these examples need to be implemented in the examples directory; click for details in the contribution guide">Move Code</span></a></p>


val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)

Here are a few common use cases with different capabilities:

fileUploadDialogTimeout

在某些环境中, 当打开文件上传对话框时, Internet Explorer可能会超时. IEDriver的默认超时为1000毫秒, 但您可以使用fileUploadDialogTimeout功能来增加超时时间.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.waitForUploadDialogUpTo(Duration.ofSeconds(2));
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options); 
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.file_upload_dialog_timeout = 2000
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.FileUploadDialogTimeout = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(2000);
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
      @options.file_upload_dialog_timeout = 2000
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().fileUploadDialogTimeout(2000);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();  
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.waitForUploadDialogUpTo(Duration.ofSeconds(2))
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ensureCleanSession

设置为 true时, 此功能将清除InternetExplorer所有正在运行实例的 缓存, 浏览器历史记录和Cookies (包括手动启动或由驱动程序启动的实例) . 默认情况下,此设置为 false.

使用此功能将导致启动浏览器时性能下降, 因为驱动程序将等待直到缓存清除后再启动IE浏览器.

此功能接受一个布尔值作为参数.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.destructivelyEnsureCleanSession();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ensure_clean_session = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.EnsureCleanSession = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
      @options.ensure_clean_session = true
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().ensureCleanSession(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.destructivelyEnsureCleanSession()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ignoreZoomSetting

InternetExplorer驱动程序期望浏览器的缩放级别为100%, 否则驱动程序将可能抛出异常. 通过将 ignoreZoomSetting 设置为 true, 可以禁用此默认行为.

此功能接受一个布尔值作为参数.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.ignoreZoomSettings();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ignore_zoom_level = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.IgnoreZoomLevel = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
      @options.ignore_zoom_level = true
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().ignoreZoomSetting(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.ignoreZoomSettings()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ignoreProtectedModeSettings

启动新的IE会话时是否跳过 保护模式 检查.

如果未设置, 并且所有区域的 保护模式 设置都不同, 则驱动程序将可能引发异常.

如果将功能设置为 true, 则测试可能会变得不稳定, 无响应, 或者浏览器可能会挂起. 但是, 到目前为止, 这仍然是第二好的选择, 并且第一选择应该 始终 是手动实际设置每个区域的保护模式设置. 如果用户正在使用此属性, 则只会给予 “尽力而为” 的支持.

此功能接受一个布尔值作为参数.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.introduceFlakinessByIgnoringSecurityDomains();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ignore_protected_mode_settings = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.IntroduceInstabilityByIgnoringProtectedModeSettings = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
      @options.ignore_protected_mode_settings = true
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().introduceFlakinessByIgnoringProtectedModeSettings(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.introduceFlakinessByIgnoringSecurityDomains()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

silent

设置为 true时, 此功能将禁止IEDriverServer的诊断输出.

此功能接受一个布尔值作为参数.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.setCapability("silent", true);
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.set_capability("silent", True)
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.AddAdditionalInternetExplorerOption("silent", true);
IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
  
      @options.silent = true
const {Builder,By, Capabilities} = require('selenium-webdriver');
let caps = Capabilities.ie();
caps.set('silent', true);

(async function example() {
    let driver = await new Builder()
        .forBrowser('internet explorer')
        .withCapabilities(caps)
        .build();
    try {
        await driver.get('http://www.google.com/ncr');
    }
    finally {
        await driver.quit();
    }
})();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.setCapability("silent", true)
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

IE 命令行选项

Internet Explorer包含几个命令行选项, 使您可以进行故障排除和配置浏览器.

下面介绍了一些受支持的命令行选项

  • -private : 用于在私有浏览模式下启动IE. 这适用于IE 8和更高版本.

  • -k : 在kiosk模式下启动Internet Explorer. 浏览器在一个最大化的窗口中打开, 该窗口不显示地址栏, 导航按钮或状态栏.

  • -extoff : 在无附加模式下启动IE. 此选项专门用于解决浏览器加载项问题. 在IE 7和更高版本中均可使用.

注意: forceCreateProcessApi 应该启用命令行参数才能正常工作.

import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions;

public class ieTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe();
        options.addCommandSwitches("-k");
        InternetExplorerDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
        try {
            driver.get("https://google.com/ncr");
            Capabilities caps = driver.getCapabilities();
            System.out.println(caps);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.add_argument('-private')
options.force_create_process_api = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
using System;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

namespace ieTest {
 class Program {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
   InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
   options.ForceCreateProcessApi = true;
   options.BrowserCommandLineArguments = "-k";
   IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
   driver.Url = "https://google.com/ncr";
  }
 }
}
  
      @options.add_argument('-k')
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options();
options.addBrowserCommandSwitches('-k');
options.addBrowserCommandSwitches('-private');
options.forceCreateProcessApi(true);

driver = await env.builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe()
    options.addCommandSwitches("-k")
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

forceCreateProcessApi

强制使用CreateProcess API启动Internet Explorer. 默认值为false.

对于IE 8及更高版本, 此选项要求将 “TabProcGrowth” 注册表值设置为0.

import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions;

public class ieTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe();
        InternetExplorerDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
        try {
            driver.get("https://google.com/ncr");
            Capabilities caps = driver.getCapabilities();
            System.out.println(caps);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.force_create_process_api = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
using System;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

namespace ieTest {
 class Program {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
   InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
   options.ForceCreateProcessApi = true;
   IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
   driver.Url = "https://google.com/ncr";
  }
 }
}
  
      @options.force_create_process_api = true
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options();
options.forceCreateProcessApi(true);

driver = await env.builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe()
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging various issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogFile(getLogLocation())

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGFILE_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=log_path, log_level='INFO')

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogOutput(System.out)

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGFILE_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Log Level

There are 6 available log levels: FATAL, ERROR, WARN, INFO, DEBUG, and TRACE If logging output is specified, the default level is FATAL

                .withLogLevel(InternetExplorerDriverLogLevel.WARN)

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGLEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of InternetExplorerDriverLogLevel.DEBUG.toString() enum

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=log_path, log_level='WARN')

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '-log-level=WARN'

Supporting Files Path

                .withExtractPath(getTempDirectory())
**Note**: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:\ Property key: `InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_EXTRACT_PATH_PROPERTY`\ Property value: String representing path to supporting files directory

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.IeService(service_args=["–extract-path="+temp_dir])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << "–extract-path=#{root_directory}"

2.3.5 - Safari 特定功能

这些是特定于Apple Safari浏览器的功能和特性.

与Chromium和Firefox驱动不同, safari驱动随操作系统安装. 要在 Safari 上启用自动化, 请从终端运行以下命令:

safaridriver --enable

选项

所有浏览器通用的Capabilities在选项页.

Safari独有的Capabilities可以在Apple的页面关于Safari的WebDriver 上找到

使用基本定义的选项启动 Safari 会话如下所示:

        SafariOptions options = new SafariOptions();
        driver = new SafariDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.SafariOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Safari(options=options)
            var options = new SafariOptions();
            driver = new SafariDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.safari
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :safari, options: options
      let driver = await env.builder()
      .setSafariOptions(options)
      .build();
val options = SafariOptions()
val driver = SafariDriver(options)

移动端

那些希望在iOS上自动化Safari的人可以参考 Appium 项目.

服务

所有浏览器通用的服务设置在 服务页面.

日志

与其他浏览器不同, Safari 浏览器不允许您选择日志的输出位置或更改级别. 一个可用选项是关闭或打开日志. 如果日志处于打开状态, 则可以在以下位置找到它们: ~/Library/Logs/com.apple.WebDriver/.

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogging(true)

注意: Java也允许使用环境变量进行设置;
属性键: SafariDriverService.SAFARI_DRIVER_LOGGING
属性值: "true""false"

    service = webdriver.SafariService(service_args=["--diagnose"])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--diagnose'

Safari Technology Preview

Apple 提供了其浏览器的开发版本 — Safari Technology Preview

在代码中使用此版本:

    Selenium::WebDriver::Safari.technology_preview!
    local_driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :safari

2.4 - 等待

Perhaps the most common challenge for browser automation is ensuring that the web application is in a state to execute a particular Selenium command as desired. The processes often end up in a race condition where sometimes the browser gets into the right state first (things work as intended) and sometimes the Selenium code executes first (things do not work as intended). This is one of the primary causes of flaky tests.

All navigation commands wait for a specific readyState value based on the page load strategy (the default value to wait for is "complete") before the driver returns control to the code. The readyState only concerns itself with loading assets defined in the HTML, but loaded JavaScript assets often result in changes to the site, and elements that need to be interacted with may not yet be on the page when the code is ready to execute the next Selenium command.

Similarly, in a lot of single page applications, elements get dynamically added to a page or change visibility based on a click. An element must be both present and displayed on the page in order for Selenium to interact with it.

Take this page for example: https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/dynamic.html When the “Add a box!” button is clicked, a “div” element that does not exist is created. When the “Reveal a new input” button is clicked, a hidden text field element is displayed. In both cases the transition takes a couple seconds. If the Selenium code is to click one of these buttons and interact with the resulting element, it will do so before that element is ready and fail.

The first solution many people turn to is adding a sleep statement to pause the code execution for a set period of time. Because the code can’t know exactly how long it needs to wait, this can fail when it doesn’t sleep long enough. Alternately, if the value is set too high and a sleep statement is added in every place it is needed, the duration of the session can become prohibitive.

Selenium provides two different mechanisms for synchronization that are better.

Implicit waits

Selenium has a built-in way to automatically wait for elements called an implicit wait. An implicit wait value can be set either with the timeouts capability in the browser options, or with a driver method (as shown below).

This is a global setting that applies to every element location call for the entire session. The default value is 0, which means that if the element is not found, it will immediately return an error. If an implicit wait is set, the driver will wait for the duration of the provided value before returning the error. Note that as soon as the element is located, the driver will return the element reference and the code will continue executing, so a larger implicit wait value won’t necessarily increase the duration of the session.

Warning: Do not mix implicit and explicit waits. Doing so can cause unpredictable wait times. For example, setting an implicit wait of 10 seconds and an explicit wait of 15 seconds could cause a timeout to occur after 20 seconds.

Solving our example with an implicit wait looks like this:

    driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofSeconds(2));
    driver.implicitly_wait(2)
            driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2);
    driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 2
            await driver.manage().setTimeouts({ implicit: 2000 });

Explicit waits

Explicit waits are loops added to the code that poll the application for a specific condition to evaluate as true before it exits the loop and continues to the next command in the code. If the condition is not met before a designated timeout value, the code will give a timeout error. Since there are many ways for the application not to be in the desired state, explicit waits are a great choice to specify the exact condition to wait for in each place it is needed. Another nice feature is that, by default, the Selenium Wait class automatically waits for the designated element to exist.

This example shows the condition being waited for as a lambda. Java also supports Expected Conditions

    Wait<WebDriver> wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, Duration.ofSeconds(2));
    wait.until(d -> revealed.isDisplayed());

This example shows the condition being waited for as a lambda. Python also supports Expected Conditions

    wait = WebDriverWait(driver, timeout=2)
    wait.until(lambda d : revealed.is_displayed())
            WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2));
            wait.Until(d => revealed.Displayed);
    wait = Selenium::WebDriver::Wait.new
    wait.until { revealed.displayed? }

JavaScript also supports Expected Conditions

            await driver.wait(until.elementIsVisible(revealed), 2000);

Customization

The Wait class can be instantiated with various parameters that will change how the conditions are evaluated.

This can include:

  • Changing how often the code is evaluated (polling interval)
  • Specifying which exceptions should be handled automatically
  • Changing the total timeout length
  • Customizing the timeout message

For instance, if the element not interactable error is retried by default, then we can add an action on a method inside the code getting executed (we just need to make sure that the code returns true when it is successful):

The easiest way to customize Waits in Java is to use the FluentWait class:

    Wait<WebDriver> wait =
        new FluentWait<>(driver)
            .withTimeout(Duration.ofSeconds(2))
            .pollingEvery(Duration.ofMillis(300))
            .ignoring(ElementNotInteractableException.class);

    wait.until(
        d -> {
          revealed.sendKeys("Displayed");
          return true;
        });
    errors = [NoSuchElementException, ElementNotInteractableException]
    wait = WebDriverWait(driver, timeout=2, poll_frequency=.2, ignored_exceptions=errors)
    wait.until(lambda d : revealed.send_keys("Displayed") or True)
            WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2))
            {
                PollingInterval = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(300),
            };
            wait.IgnoreExceptionTypes(typeof(ElementNotInteractableException));

            wait.Until(d => {
                revealed.SendKeys("Displayed");
                return true;
            });
    errors = [Selenium::WebDriver::Error::NoSuchElementError,
              Selenium::WebDriver::Error::ElementNotInteractableError]
    wait = Selenium::WebDriver::Wait.new(timeout: 2,
                                         interval: 0.3,
                                         ignore: errors)

    wait.until { revealed.send_keys('Displayed') || true }

2.5 - 网络元素

在DOM中识别和使用元素对象.

大多数人的Selenium代码都涉及使用web元素.

2.5.1 - 文件上传

Because Selenium cannot interact with the file upload dialog, it provides a way to upload files without opening the dialog. If the element is an input element with type file, you can use the send keys method to send the full path to the file that will be uploaded.

    WebElement fileInput = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("input[type=file]"));
    fileInput.sendKeys(uploadFile.getAbsolutePath());
    driver.findElement(By.id("file-submit")).click();
    file_input = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR, "input[type='file']")
    file_input.send_keys(upload_file)
    driver.find_element(By.ID, "file-submit").click()
            IWebElement fileInput = driver.FindElement(By.CssSelector("input[type=file]"));
            fileInput.SendKeys(uploadFile);
            driver.FindElement(By.Id("file-submit")).Click();
    file_input = driver.find_element(css: 'input[type=file]')
    file_input.send_keys(upload_file)
    driver.find_element(id: 'file-submit').click
      await driver.findElement(By.id("file-upload")).sendKeys(image);
      await driver.findElement(By.id("file-submit")).submit();

Move Code

```java import org.openqa.selenium.By import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver fun main() { val driver = ChromeDriver() driver.get("https://the-internet.herokuapp.com/upload") driver.findElement(By.id("file-upload")).sendKeys("selenium-snapshot.jpg") driver.findElement(By.id("file-submit")).submit() if(driver.pageSource.contains("File Uploaded!")) { println("file uploaded") } else{ println("file not uploaded") } } ```

2.5.2 - 查询网络元素

根据提供的定位值定位元素.

One of the most fundamental aspects of using Selenium is obtaining element references to work with. Selenium offers a number of built-in locator strategies to uniquely identify an element. There are many ways to use the locators in very advanced scenarios. For the purposes of this documentation, let’s consider this HTML snippet:

<ol id="vegetables">
 <li class="potatoes"> <li class="onions"> <li class="tomatoes"><span>Tomato is a Vegetable</span></ol>
<ul id="fruits">
  <li class="bananas">  <li class="apples">  <li class="tomatoes"><span>Tomato is a Fruit</span></ul>

First matching element

Many locators will match multiple elements on the page. The singular find element method will return a reference to the first element found within a given context.

Evaluating entire DOM

When the find element method is called on the driver instance, it returns a reference to the first element in the DOM that matches with the provided locator. This value can be stored and used for future element actions. In our example HTML above, there are two elements that have a class name of “tomatoes” so this method will return the element in the “vegetables” list.

WebElement vegetable = driver.findElement(By.className("tomatoes"));
  
vegetable = driver.find_element(By.CLASS_NAME, "tomatoes")
  
var vegetable = driver.FindElement(By.ClassName("tomatoes"));
  
      driver.find_element(class: 'tomatoes')
const vegetable = await driver.findElement(By.className('tomatoes'));
  
val vegetable: WebElement = driver.findElement(By.className("tomatoes"))
  

Evaluating a subset of the DOM

Rather than finding a unique locator in the entire DOM, it is often useful to narrow the search to the scope of another located element. In the above example there are two elements with a class name of “tomatoes” and it is a little more challenging to get the reference for the second one.

One solution is to locate an element with a unique attribute that is an ancestor of the desired element and not an ancestor of the undesired element, then call find element on that object:

WebElement fruits = driver.findElement(By.id("fruits"));
WebElement fruit = fruits.findElement(By.className("tomatoes"));
  
fruits = driver.find_element(By.ID, "fruits")
fruit = fruits.find_element(By.CLASS_NAME,"tomatoes")
  
IWebElement fruits = driver.FindElement(By.Id("fruits"));
IWebElement fruit = fruits.FindElement(By.ClassName("tomatoes"));
  
      fruits = driver.find_element(id: 'fruits')
      fruit = fruits.find_element(class: 'tomatoes')
const fruits = await driver.findElement(By.id('fruits'));
const fruit = fruits.findElement(By.className('tomatoes'));
  
val fruits = driver.findElement(By.id("fruits"))
val fruit = fruits.findElement