Source code for selenium.webdriver.remote.webelement

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import base64
import hashlib
import os
import pkgutil
import warnings
import zipfile

from selenium.common.exceptions import WebDriverException
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.common.utils import keys_to_typing
from .command import Command

# Python 3 imports
try:
    str = basestring
except NameError:
    pass

try:
    from StringIO import StringIO as IOStream
except ImportError:  # 3+
    from io import BytesIO as IOStream

# not relying on __package__ here as it can be `None` in some situations (see #4558)
_pkg = '.'.join(__name__.split('.')[:-1])
getAttribute_js = pkgutil.get_data(_pkg, 'getAttribute.js').decode('utf8')
isDisplayed_js = pkgutil.get_data(_pkg, 'isDisplayed.js').decode('utf8')


[docs]class WebElement(object): """Represents a DOM element. Generally, all interesting operations that interact with a document will be performed through this interface. All method calls will do a freshness check to ensure that the element reference is still valid. This essentially determines whether or not the element is still attached to the DOM. If this test fails, then an ``StaleElementReferenceException`` is thrown, and all future calls to this instance will fail.""" def __init__(self, parent, id_, w3c=False): self._parent = parent self._id = id_ self._w3c = w3c def __repr__(self): return '<{0.__module__}.{0.__name__} (session="{1}", element="{2}")>'.format( type(self), self._parent.session_id, self._id) @property
[docs] def tag_name(self): """This element's ``tagName`` property.""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_TAG_NAME)['value']
@property
[docs] def text(self): """The text of the element.""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_TEXT)['value']
[docs] def click(self): """Clicks the element.""" self._execute(Command.CLICK_ELEMENT)
[docs] def submit(self): """Submits a form.""" if self._w3c: form = self.find_element(By.XPATH, "./ancestor-or-self::form") self._parent.execute_script( "var e = arguments[0].ownerDocument.createEvent('Event');" "e.initEvent('submit', true, true);" "if (arguments[0].dispatchEvent(e)) { arguments[0].submit() }", form) else: self._execute(Command.SUBMIT_ELEMENT)
[docs] def clear(self): """Clears the text if it's a text entry element.""" self._execute(Command.CLEAR_ELEMENT)
[docs] def get_property(self, name): """ Gets the given property of the element. :Args: - name - Name of the property to retrieve. Example:: text_length = target_element.get_property("text_length") """ try: return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_PROPERTY, {"name": name})["value"] except WebDriverException: # if we hit an end point that doesnt understand getElementProperty lets fake it return self.parent.execute_script('return arguments[0][arguments[1]]', self, name)
[docs] def get_attribute(self, name): """Gets the given attribute or property of the element. This method will first try to return the value of a property with the given name. If a property with that name doesn't exist, it returns the value of the attribute with the same name. If there's no attribute with that name, ``None`` is returned. Values which are considered truthy, that is equals "true" or "false", are returned as booleans. All other non-``None`` values are returned as strings. For attributes or properties which do not exist, ``None`` is returned. :Args: - name - Name of the attribute/property to retrieve. Example:: # Check if the "active" CSS class is applied to an element. is_active = "active" in target_element.get_attribute("class") """ attributeValue = '' if self._w3c: attributeValue = self.parent.execute_script( "return (%s).apply(null, arguments);" % getAttribute_js, self, name) else: resp = self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_ATTRIBUTE, {'name': name}) attributeValue = resp.get('value') if attributeValue is not None: if name != 'value' and attributeValue.lower() in ('true', 'false'): attributeValue = attributeValue.lower() return attributeValue
[docs] def is_selected(self): """Returns whether the element is selected. Can be used to check if a checkbox or radio button is selected. """ return self._execute(Command.IS_ELEMENT_SELECTED)['value']
[docs] def is_enabled(self): """Returns whether the element is enabled.""" return self._execute(Command.IS_ELEMENT_ENABLED)['value']
[docs] def find_element_by_id(self, id_): """Finds element within this element's children by ID. :Args: - id\_ - ID of child element to locate. :Returns: - WebElement - the element if it was found :Raises: - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found :Usage: foo_element = element.find_element_by_id('foo') """ return self.find_element(by=By.ID, value=id_)
[docs] def find_elements_by_id(self, id_): """Finds a list of elements within this element's children by ID. Will return a list of webelements if found, or an empty list if not. :Args: - id\_ - Id of child element to find. :Returns: - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not :Usage: elements = element.find_elements_by_id('foo') """ return self.find_elements(by=By.ID, value=id_)
[docs] def find_element_by_name(self, name): """Finds element within this element's children by name. :Args: - name - name property of the element to find. :Returns: - WebElement - the element if it was found :Raises: - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found :Usage: element = element.find_element_by_name('foo') """ return self.find_element(by=By.NAME, value=name)
[docs] def find_elements_by_name(self, name): """Finds a list of elements within this element's children by name. :Args: - name - name property to search for. :Returns: - list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found. an empty list if not :Usage: elements = element.find_elements_by_name('foo') """ return self.find_elements(by=By.NAME, value=name)
[docs] def find_element_by_tag_name(self, name): """Finds element within this element's children by tag name. :Args: - name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span) :Returns: - WebElement - the element if it was found :Raises: - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found :Usage: element = element.find_element_by_tag_name('h1') """ return self.find_element(by=By.TAG_NAME, value=name)
[docs] def find_elements_by_tag_name(self, name): """Finds a list of elements within this element's children by tag name. :Args: - name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span) :Returns: - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not :Usage: elements = element.find_elements_by_tag_name('h1') """ return self.find_elements(by=By.TAG_NAME, value=name)
[docs] def find_element_by_xpath(self, xpath): """Finds element by xpath. :Args: - xpath - xpath of element to locate. "//input[@class='myelement']" Note: The base path will be relative to this element's location. This will select the first link under this element. :: myelement.find_element_by_xpath(".//a") However, this will select the first link on the page. :: myelement.find_element_by_xpath("//a") :Returns: - WebElement - the element if it was found :Raises: - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found :Usage: element = element.find_element_by_xpath('//div/td[1]') """ return self.find_element(by=By.XPATH, value=xpath)
[docs] def find_elements_by_xpath(self, xpath): """Finds elements within the element by xpath. :Args: - xpath - xpath locator string. Note: The base path will be relative to this element's location. This will select all links under this element. :: myelement.find_elements_by_xpath(".//a") However, this will select all links in the page itself. :: myelement.find_elements_by_xpath("//a") :Returns: - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not :Usage: elements = element.find_elements_by_xpath("//div[contains(@class, 'foo')]") """ return self.find_elements(by=By.XPATH, value=xpath)
[docs] def find_element_by_class_name(self, name): """Finds element within this element's children by class name. :Args: - name: The class name of the element to find. :Returns: - WebElement - the element if it was found :Raises: - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found :Usage: element = element.find_element_by_class_name('foo') """ return self.find_element(by=By.CLASS_NAME, value=name)
[docs] def find_elements_by_class_name(self, name): """Finds a list of elements within this element's children by class name. :Args: - name: The class name of the elements to find. :Returns: - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not :Usage: elements = element.find_elements_by_class_name('foo') """ return self.find_elements(by=By.CLASS_NAME, value=name)
[docs] def find_element_by_css_selector(self, css_selector): """Finds element within this element's children by CSS selector. :Args: - css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: 'a.nav#home' :Returns: - WebElement - the element if it was found :Raises: - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found :Usage: element = element.find_element_by_css_selector('#foo') """ return self.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value=css_selector)
[docs] def find_elements_by_css_selector(self, css_selector): """Finds a list of elements within this element's children by CSS selector. :Args: - css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: 'a.nav#home' :Returns: - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found. An empty list if not :Usage: elements = element.find_elements_by_css_selector('.foo') """ return self.find_elements(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value=css_selector)
[docs] def send_keys(self, *value): """Simulates typing into the element. :Args: - value - A string for typing, or setting form fields. For setting file inputs, this could be a local file path. Use this to send simple key events or to fill out form fields:: form_textfield = driver.find_element_by_name('username') form_textfield.send_keys("admin") This can also be used to set file inputs. :: file_input = driver.find_element_by_name('profilePic') file_input.send_keys("path/to/profilepic.gif") # Generally it's better to wrap the file path in one of the methods # in os.path to return the actual path to support cross OS testing. # file_input.send_keys(os.path.abspath("path/to/profilepic.gif")) """ # transfer file to another machine only if remote driver is used # the same behaviour as for java binding if self.parent._is_remote: local_file = self.parent.file_detector.is_local_file(*value) if local_file is not None: value = self._upload(local_file) self._execute(Command.SEND_KEYS_TO_ELEMENT, {'text': "".join(keys_to_typing(value)), 'value': keys_to_typing(value)}) # RenderedWebElement Items
[docs] def is_displayed(self): """Whether the element is visible to a user.""" # Only go into this conditional for browsers that don't use the atom themselves if self._w3c and self.parent.capabilities['browserName'] == 'safari': return self.parent.execute_script( "return (%s).apply(null, arguments);" % isDisplayed_js, self) else: return self._execute(Command.IS_ELEMENT_DISPLAYED)['value']
@property
[docs] def location_once_scrolled_into_view(self): """THIS PROPERTY MAY CHANGE WITHOUT WARNING. Use this to discover where on the screen an element is so that we can click it. This method should cause the element to be scrolled into view. Returns the top lefthand corner location on the screen, or ``None`` if the element is not visible. """ if self._w3c: old_loc = self._execute(Command.W3C_EXECUTE_SCRIPT, { 'script': "arguments[0].scrollIntoView(true); return arguments[0].getBoundingClientRect()", 'args': [self]})['value'] return {"x": round(old_loc['x']), "y": round(old_loc['y'])} else: return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_LOCATION_ONCE_SCROLLED_INTO_VIEW)['value']
@property
[docs] def size(self): """The size of the element.""" size = {} if self._w3c: size = self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_RECT)['value'] else: size = self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_SIZE)['value'] new_size = {"height": size["height"], "width": size["width"]} return new_size
[docs] def value_of_css_property(self, property_name): """The value of a CSS property.""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_VALUE_OF_CSS_PROPERTY, { 'propertyName': property_name})['value']
@property
[docs] def location(self): """The location of the element in the renderable canvas.""" if self._w3c: old_loc = self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_RECT)['value'] else: old_loc = self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_LOCATION)['value'] new_loc = {"x": round(old_loc['x']), "y": round(old_loc['y'])} return new_loc
@property
[docs] def rect(self): """A dictionary with the size and location of the element.""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_RECT)['value']
@property
[docs] def screenshot_as_base64(self): """ Gets the screenshot of the current element as a base64 encoded string. :Usage: img_b64 = element.screenshot_as_base64 """ return self._execute(Command.ELEMENT_SCREENSHOT)['value']
@property
[docs] def screenshot_as_png(self): """ Gets the screenshot of the current element as a binary data. :Usage: element_png = element.screenshot_as_png """ return base64.b64decode(self.screenshot_as_base64.encode('ascii'))
[docs] def screenshot(self, filename): """ Saves a screenshot of the current element to a PNG image file. Returns False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in your filename. :Args: - filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This should end with a `.png` extension. :Usage: element.screenshot('/Screenshots/foo.png') """ if not filename.lower().endswith('.png'): warnings.warn("name used for saved screenshot does not match file " "type. It should end with a `.png` extension", UserWarning) png = self.screenshot_as_png try: with open(filename, 'wb') as f: f.write(png) except IOError: return False finally: del png return True
@property
[docs] def parent(self): """Internal reference to the WebDriver instance this element was found from.""" return self._parent
@property
[docs] def id(self): """Internal ID used by selenium. This is mainly for internal use. Simple use cases such as checking if 2 webelements refer to the same element, can be done using ``==``:: if element1 == element2: print("These 2 are equal") """ return self._id
def __eq__(self, element): return hasattr(element, 'id') and self._id == element.id def __ne__(self, element): return not self.__eq__(element) # Private Methods def _execute(self, command, params=None): """Executes a command against the underlying HTML element. Args: command: The name of the command to _execute as a string. params: A dictionary of named parameters to send with the command. Returns: The command's JSON response loaded into a dictionary object. """ if not params: params = {} params['id'] = self._id return self._parent.execute(command, params)
[docs] def find_element(self, by=By.ID, value=None): """ Find an element given a By strategy and locator. Prefer the find_element_by_* methods when possible. :Usage: element = element.find_element(By.ID, 'foo') :rtype: WebElement """ if self._w3c: if by == By.ID: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = '[id="%s"]' % value elif by == By.TAG_NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR elif by == By.CLASS_NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = ".%s" % value elif by == By.NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = '[name="%s"]' % value return self._execute(Command.FIND_CHILD_ELEMENT, {"using": by, "value": value})['value']
[docs] def find_elements(self, by=By.ID, value=None): """ Find elements given a By strategy and locator. Prefer the find_elements_by_* methods when possible. :Usage: element = element.find_elements(By.CLASS_NAME, 'foo') :rtype: list of WebElement """ if self._w3c: if by == By.ID: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = '[id="%s"]' % value elif by == By.TAG_NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR elif by == By.CLASS_NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = ".%s" % value elif by == By.NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = '[name="%s"]' % value return self._execute(Command.FIND_CHILD_ELEMENTS, {"using": by, "value": value})['value']
def __hash__(self): return int(hashlib.md5(self._id.encode('utf-8')).hexdigest(), 16) def _upload(self, filename): fp = IOStream() zipped = zipfile.ZipFile(fp, 'w', zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED) zipped.write(filename, os.path.split(filename)[1]) zipped.close() content = base64.encodestring(fp.getvalue()) if not isinstance(content, str): content = content.decode('utf-8') try: return self._execute(Command.UPLOAD_FILE, {'file': content})['value'] except WebDriverException as e: if "Unrecognized command: POST" in e.__str__(): return filename elif "Command not found: POST " in e.__str__(): return filename elif '{"status":405,"value":["GET","HEAD","DELETE"]}' in e.__str__(): return filename else: raise e