Source code for selenium.webdriver.remote.webelement

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from __future__ import annotations

import os
from base64 import b64decode, encodebytes
from hashlib import md5 as md5_hash
import pkgutil
import warnings
import zipfile
from abc import ABCMeta
from io import BytesIO

from selenium.common.exceptions import WebDriverException, JavascriptException
from import By
from selenium.webdriver.common.utils import keys_to_typing
from .command import Command
from .shadowroot import ShadowRoot

# TODO: When moving to supporting python 3.9 as the minimum version we can
# use built in importlib_resources.files.
getAttribute_js = None
isDisplayed_js = None

def _load_js():
    global getAttribute_js
    global isDisplayed_js
    _pkg = '.'.join(__name__.split('.')[:-1])
    getAttribute_js = pkgutil.get_data(_pkg, 'getAttribute.js').decode('utf8')
    isDisplayed_js = pkgutil.get_data(_pkg, 'isDisplayed.js').decode('utf8')

[docs]class BaseWebElement(metaclass=ABCMeta): """ Abstract Base Class for WebElement. ABC's will allow custom types to be registered as a WebElement to pass type checks. """ pass
[docs]class WebElement(BaseWebElement): """Represents a DOM element. Generally, all interesting operations that interact with a document will be performed through this interface. All method calls will do a freshness check to ensure that the element reference is still valid. This essentially determines whether or not the element is still attached to the DOM. If this test fails, then an ``StaleElementReferenceException`` is thrown, and all future calls to this instance will fail.""" def __init__(self, parent, id_): self._parent = parent self._id = id_ def __repr__(self): return '<{0.__module__}.{0.__name__} (session="{1}", element="{2}")>'.format( type(self), self._parent.session_id, self._id) @property def tag_name(self) -> str: """This element's ``tagName`` property.""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_TAG_NAME)['value'] @property def text(self) -> str: """The text of the element.""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_TEXT)['value']
[docs] def click(self) -> None: """Clicks the element.""" self._execute(Command.CLICK_ELEMENT)
[docs] def submit(self): """Submits a form.""" script = "var form = arguments[0];\n" \ "while (form.nodeName != \"FORM\" && form.parentNode) {\n" \ " form = form.parentNode;\n" \ "}\n" \ "if (!form) { throw Error('Unable to find containing form element'); }\n" \ "if (!form.ownerDocument) { throw Error('Unable to find owning document'); }\n" \ "var e = form.ownerDocument.createEvent('Event');\n" \ "e.initEvent('submit', true, true);\n" \ "if (form.dispatchEvent(e)) { }\n" try: self._parent.execute_script(script, self) except JavascriptException: raise WebDriverException("To submit an element, it must be nested inside a form element")
[docs] def clear(self) -> None: """Clears the text if it's a text entry element.""" self._execute(Command.CLEAR_ELEMENT)
[docs] def get_property(self, name) -> str | bool | WebElement | dict: """ Gets the given property of the element. :Args: - name - Name of the property to retrieve. :Usage: :: text_length = target_element.get_property("text_length") """ try: return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_PROPERTY, {"name": name})["value"] except WebDriverException: # if we hit an end point that doesn't understand getElementProperty lets fake it return self.parent.execute_script('return arguments[0][arguments[1]]', self, name)
[docs] def get_dom_attribute(self, name) -> str: """ Gets the given attribute of the element. Unlike :func:`~selenium.webdriver.remote.BaseWebElement.get_attribute`, this method only returns attributes declared in the element's HTML markup. :Args: - name - Name of the attribute to retrieve. :Usage: :: text_length = target_element.get_dom_attribute("class") """ return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_ATTRIBUTE, {"name": name})["value"]
[docs] def get_attribute(self, name) -> str: """Gets the given attribute or property of the element. This method will first try to return the value of a property with the given name. If a property with that name doesn't exist, it returns the value of the attribute with the same name. If there's no attribute with that name, ``None`` is returned. Values which are considered truthy, that is equals "true" or "false", are returned as booleans. All other non-``None`` values are returned as strings. For attributes or properties which do not exist, ``None`` is returned. To obtain the exact value of the attribute or property, use :func:`~selenium.webdriver.remote.BaseWebElement.get_dom_attribute` or :func:`~selenium.webdriver.remote.BaseWebElement.get_property` methods respectively. :Args: - name - Name of the attribute/property to retrieve. Example:: # Check if the "active" CSS class is applied to an element. is_active = "active" in target_element.get_attribute("class") """ if getAttribute_js is None: _load_js() attribute_value = self.parent.execute_script( "return (%s).apply(null, arguments);" % getAttribute_js, self, name) return attribute_value
[docs] def is_selected(self) -> bool: """Returns whether the element is selected. Can be used to check if a checkbox or radio button is selected. """ return self._execute(Command.IS_ELEMENT_SELECTED)['value']
[docs] def is_enabled(self) -> bool: """Returns whether the element is enabled.""" return self._execute(Command.IS_ELEMENT_ENABLED)['value']
[docs] def send_keys(self, *value) -> None: """Simulates typing into the element. :Args: - value - A string for typing, or setting form fields. For setting file inputs, this could be a local file path. Use this to send simple key events or to fill out form fields:: form_textfield = driver.find_element(By.NAME, 'username') form_textfield.send_keys("admin") This can also be used to set file inputs. :: file_input = driver.find_element(By.NAME, 'profilePic') file_input.send_keys("path/to/profilepic.gif") # Generally it's better to wrap the file path in one of the methods # in os.path to return the actual path to support cross OS testing. # file_input.send_keys(os.path.abspath("path/to/profilepic.gif")) """ # transfer file to another machine only if remote driver is used # the same behaviour as for java binding if self.parent._is_remote: local_files = list(map(lambda keys_to_send: self.parent.file_detector.is_local_file(str(keys_to_send)), ''.join(map(str, value)).split('\n'))) if None not in local_files: remote_files = [] for file in local_files: remote_files.append(self._upload(file)) value = '\n'.join(remote_files) self._execute(Command.SEND_KEYS_TO_ELEMENT, {'text': "".join(keys_to_typing(value)), 'value': keys_to_typing(value)})
@property def shadow_root(self) -> ShadowRoot: """ Returns a shadow root of the element if there is one or an error. Only works from Chromium 96 onwards. Previous versions of Chromium based browsers will throw an assertion exception. :Returns: - ShadowRoot object or - NoSuchShadowRoot - if no shadow root was attached to element """ browser_main_version = int(self._parent.caps["browserVersion"].split(".")[0]) assert self._parent.caps["browserName"].lower() not in ["firefox", "safari"], "This only currently works in Chromium based browsers" assert not browser_main_version <= 95, f"Please use Chromium based browsers with version 96 or later. Version used {self._parent.caps['browserVersion']}" return self._execute(Command.GET_SHADOW_ROOT)['value'] # RenderedWebElement Items
[docs] def is_displayed(self) -> bool: """Whether the element is visible to a user.""" # Only go into this conditional for browsers that don't use the atom themselves if isDisplayed_js is None: _load_js() return self.parent.execute_script( "return (%s).apply(null, arguments);" % isDisplayed_js, self)
@property def location_once_scrolled_into_view(self) -> dict: """THIS PROPERTY MAY CHANGE WITHOUT WARNING. Use this to discover where on the screen an element is so that we can click it. This method should cause the element to be scrolled into view. Returns the top lefthand corner location on the screen, or ``None`` if the element is not visible. """ old_loc = self._execute(Command.W3C_EXECUTE_SCRIPT, { 'script': "arguments[0].scrollIntoView(true); return arguments[0].getBoundingClientRect()", 'args': [self]})['value'] return {"x": round(old_loc['x']), "y": round(old_loc['y'])} @property def size(self) -> dict: """The size of the element.""" size = self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_RECT)['value'] new_size = {"height": size["height"], "width": size["width"]} return new_size
[docs] def value_of_css_property(self, property_name) -> str: """The value of a CSS property.""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_VALUE_OF_CSS_PROPERTY, { 'propertyName': property_name})['value']
@property def location(self) -> dict: """The location of the element in the renderable canvas.""" old_loc = self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_RECT)['value'] new_loc = {"x": round(old_loc['x']), "y": round(old_loc['y'])} return new_loc @property def rect(self) -> dict: """A dictionary with the size and location of the element.""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_RECT)['value'] @property def aria_role(self) -> str: """ Returns the ARIA role of the current web element""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_ARIA_ROLE)['value'] @property def accessible_name(self) -> str: """Returns the ARIA Level of the current webelement""" return self._execute(Command.GET_ELEMENT_ARIA_LABEL)['value'] @property def screenshot_as_base64(self) -> str: """ Gets the screenshot of the current element as a base64 encoded string. :Usage: :: img_b64 = element.screenshot_as_base64 """ return self._execute(Command.ELEMENT_SCREENSHOT)['value'] @property def screenshot_as_png(self) -> bytes: """ Gets the screenshot of the current element as a binary data. :Usage: :: element_png = element.screenshot_as_png """ return b64decode(self.screenshot_as_base64.encode('ascii'))
[docs] def screenshot(self, filename) -> bool: """ Saves a screenshot of the current element to a PNG image file. Returns False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in your filename. :Args: - filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This should end with a `.png` extension. :Usage: :: element.screenshot('/Screenshots/foo.png') """ if not filename.lower().endswith('.png'): warnings.warn("name used for saved screenshot does not match file " "type. It should end with a `.png` extension", UserWarning) png = self.screenshot_as_png try: with open(filename, 'wb') as f: f.write(png) except OSError: return False finally: del png return True
@property def parent(self): """Internal reference to the WebDriver instance this element was found from.""" return self._parent @property def id(self) -> str: """Internal ID used by selenium. This is mainly for internal use. Simple use cases such as checking if 2 webelements refer to the same element, can be done using ``==``:: if element1 == element2: print("These 2 are equal") """ return self._id def __eq__(self, element): return hasattr(element, 'id') and self._id == def __ne__(self, element): return not self.__eq__(element) # Private Methods def _execute(self, command, params=None): """Executes a command against the underlying HTML element. Args: command: The name of the command to _execute as a string. params: A dictionary of named parameters to send with the command. Returns: The command's JSON response loaded into a dictionary object. """ if not params: params = {} params['id'] = self._id return self._parent.execute(command, params)
[docs] def find_element(self, by=By.ID, value=None) -> WebElement: """ Find an element given a By strategy and locator. :Usage: :: element = element.find_element(By.ID, 'foo') :rtype: WebElement """ if by == By.ID: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = '[id="%s"]' % value elif by == By.CLASS_NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = ".%s" % value elif by == By.NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = '[name="%s"]' % value return self._execute(Command.FIND_CHILD_ELEMENT, {"using": by, "value": value})['value']
[docs] def find_elements(self, by=By.ID, value=None) -> list[WebElement]: """ Find elements given a By strategy and locator. :Usage: :: element = element.find_elements(By.CLASS_NAME, 'foo') :rtype: list of WebElement """ if by == By.ID: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = '[id="%s"]' % value elif by == By.CLASS_NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = ".%s" % value elif by == By.NAME: by = By.CSS_SELECTOR value = '[name="%s"]' % value return self._execute(Command.FIND_CHILD_ELEMENTS, {"using": by, "value": value})['value']
def __hash__(self): return int(md5_hash(self._id.encode('utf-8')).hexdigest(), 16) def _upload(self, filename): fp = BytesIO() zipped = zipfile.ZipFile(fp, 'w', zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED) zipped.write(filename, os.path.split(filename)[1]) zipped.close() content = encodebytes(fp.getvalue()) if not isinstance(content, str): content = content.decode('utf-8') try: return self._execute(Command.UPLOAD_FILE, {'file': content})['value'] except WebDriverException as e: if "Unrecognized command: POST" in e.__str__(): return filename elif "Command not found: POST " in e.__str__(): return filename elif '{"status":405,"value":["GET","HEAD","DELETE"]}' in e.__str__(): return filename else: raise