Interface WebElement

  • All Superinterfaces:
    SearchContext, TakesScreenshot
    All Known Implementing Classes:
    RemoteWebElement

    public interface WebElement
    extends SearchContext, TakesScreenshot
    Represents an HTML element. Generally, all interesting operations to do with interacting with a page will be performed through this interface.

    All method calls will do a freshness check to ensure that the element reference is still valid. This essentially determines whether or not the element is still attached to the DOM. If this test fails, then an StaleElementReferenceException is thrown, and all future calls to this instance will fail.

    • Method Summary

      All Methods Instance Methods Abstract Methods Default Methods 
      Modifier and Type Method Description
      void clear()
      If this element is a form entry element, this will reset its value.
      void click()
      Click this element.
      WebElement findElement​(By by)
      Find the first WebElement using the given method.
      java.util.List<WebElement> findElements​(By by)
      Find all elements within the current context using the given mechanism.
      default java.lang.String getAccessibleName()
      Gets result of a Accessible Name and Description Computation for the Accessible Name of the element.
      default java.lang.String getAriaRole()
      Gets result of computing the WAI-ARIA role of element.
      java.lang.String getAttribute​(java.lang.String name)
      Get the value of the given attribute of the element.
      java.lang.String getCssValue​(java.lang.String propertyName)
      Get the value of a given CSS property.
      default java.lang.String getDomAttribute​(java.lang.String name)
      Get the value of the given attribute of the element.
      default java.lang.String getDomProperty​(java.lang.String name)
      Get the value of the given property of the element.
      Point getLocation()
      Where on the page is the top left-hand corner of the rendered element?
      Rectangle getRect()  
      Dimension getSize()
      What is the width and height of the rendered element?
      java.lang.String getTagName()
      Get the tag name of this element.
      java.lang.String getText()
      Get the visible (i.e.
      boolean isDisplayed()
      Is this element displayed or not? This method avoids the problem of having to parse an element's "style" attribute.
      boolean isEnabled()
      Is the element currently enabled or not? This will generally return true for everything but disabled input elements.
      boolean isSelected()
      Determine whether or not this element is selected or not.
      void sendKeys​(java.lang.CharSequence... keysToSend)
      Use this method to simulate typing into an element, which may set its value.
      void submit()
      If this current element is a form, or an element within a form, then this will be submitted to the remote server.
    • Method Detail

      • click

        void click()
        Click this element. If this causes a new page to load, you should discard all references to this element and any further operations performed on this element will throw a StaleElementReferenceException.

        Note that if click() is done by sending a native event (which is the default on most browsers/platforms) then the method will _not_ wait for the next page to load and the caller should verify that themselves.

        There are some preconditions for an element to be clicked. The element must be visible and it must have a height and width greater then 0.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Throws:
        StaleElementReferenceException - If the element no longer exists as initially defined
      • submit

        void submit()
        If this current element is a form, or an element within a form, then this will be submitted to the remote server. If this causes the current page to change, then this method will block until the new page is loaded.
        Throws:
        NoSuchElementException - If the given element is not within a form
      • sendKeys

        void sendKeys​(java.lang.CharSequence... keysToSend)
        Use this method to simulate typing into an element, which may set its value.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Parameters:
        keysToSend - character sequence to send to the element
        Throws:
        java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if keysToSend is null
      • getTagName

        java.lang.String getTagName()
        Get the tag name of this element. Not the value of the name attribute: will return "input" for the element <input name="foo" />.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Returns:
        The tag name of this element.
      • getDomProperty

        default java.lang.String getDomProperty​(java.lang.String name)
        Get the value of the given property of the element. Will return the current value, even if this has been modified after the page has been loaded.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Parameters:
        name - The name of the property.
        Returns:
        The property's current value or null if the value is not set.
      • getDomAttribute

        default java.lang.String getDomAttribute​(java.lang.String name)
        Get the value of the given attribute of the element.

        This method, unlike getAttribute(String), returns the value of the attribute with the given name but not the property with the same name.

        The following are deemed to be "boolean" attributes, and will return either "true" or null:

        async, autofocus, autoplay, checked, compact, complete, controls, declare, defaultchecked, defaultselected, defer, disabled, draggable, ended, formnovalidate, hidden, indeterminate, iscontenteditable, ismap, itemscope, loop, multiple, muted, nohref, noresize, noshade, novalidate, nowrap, open, paused, pubdate, readonly, required, reversed, scoped, seamless, seeking, selected, truespeed, willvalidate

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Parameters:
        name - The name of the attribute.
        Returns:
        The attribute's value or null if the value is not set.
      • getAttribute

        java.lang.String getAttribute​(java.lang.String name)
        Get the value of the given attribute of the element. Will return the current value, even if this has been modified after the page has been loaded.

        More exactly, this method will return the value of the property with the given name, if it exists. If it does not, then the value of the attribute with the given name is returned. If neither exists, null is returned.

        The "style" attribute is converted as best can be to a text representation with a trailing semi-colon.

        The following are deemed to be "boolean" attributes, and will return either "true" or null:

        async, autofocus, autoplay, checked, compact, complete, controls, declare, defaultchecked, defaultselected, defer, disabled, draggable, ended, formnovalidate, hidden, indeterminate, iscontenteditable, ismap, itemscope, loop, multiple, muted, nohref, noresize, noshade, novalidate, nowrap, open, paused, pubdate, readonly, required, reversed, scoped, seamless, seeking, selected, truespeed, willvalidate

        Finally, the following commonly mis-capitalized attribute/property names are evaluated as expected:

        • If the given name is "class", the "className" property is returned.
        • If the given name is "readonly", the "readOnly" property is returned.
        Note: The reason for this behavior is that users frequently confuse attributes and properties. If you need to do something more precise, use getDomAttribute(String) or getDomProperty(String) to obtain the result you desire.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Parameters:
        name - The name of the attribute.
        Returns:
        The attribute/property's current value or null if the value is not set.
      • getAriaRole

        default java.lang.String getAriaRole()
        Gets result of computing the WAI-ARIA role of element.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Returns:
        the WAI-ARIA role of the element.
      • getAccessibleName

        default java.lang.String getAccessibleName()
        Gets result of a Accessible Name and Description Computation for the Accessible Name of the element.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Returns:
        the accessible name of the element.
      • isSelected

        boolean isSelected()
        Determine whether or not this element is selected or not. This operation only applies to input elements such as checkboxes, options in a select and radio buttons. For more information on which elements this method supports, refer to the specification.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Returns:
        True if the element is currently selected or checked, false otherwise.
      • isEnabled

        boolean isEnabled()
        Is the element currently enabled or not? This will generally return true for everything but disabled input elements.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Returns:
        True if the element is enabled, false otherwise.
      • getText

        java.lang.String getText()
        Get the visible (i.e. not hidden by CSS) text of this element, including sub-elements.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Returns:
        The visible text of this element.
      • findElements

        java.util.List<WebElement> findElements​(By by)
        Find all elements within the current context using the given mechanism. When using xpath be aware that webdriver follows standard conventions: a search prefixed with "//" will search the entire document, not just the children of this current node. Use ".//" to limit your search to the children of this WebElement. This method is affected by the 'implicit wait' times in force at the time of execution. When implicitly waiting, this method will return as soon as there are more than 0 items in the found collection, or will return an empty list if the timeout is reached.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Specified by:
        findElements in interface SearchContext
        Parameters:
        by - The locating mechanism to use
        Returns:
        A list of all WebElements, or an empty list if nothing matches.
        See Also:
        By, WebDriver.Timeouts
      • findElement

        WebElement findElement​(By by)
        Find the first WebElement using the given method. See the note in findElements(By) about finding via XPath. This method is affected by the 'implicit wait' times in force at the time of execution. The findElement(..) invocation will return a matching row, or try again repeatedly until the configured timeout is reached.

        findElement should not be used to look for non-present elements, use findElements(By) and assert zero length response instead.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Specified by:
        findElement in interface SearchContext
        Parameters:
        by - The locating mechanism
        Returns:
        The first matching element on the current context.
        Throws:
        NoSuchElementException - If no matching elements are found
        See Also:
        By, WebDriver.Timeouts
      • isDisplayed

        boolean isDisplayed()
        Is this element displayed or not? This method avoids the problem of having to parse an element's "style" attribute.
        Returns:
        Whether or not the element is displayed
      • getLocation

        Point getLocation()
        Where on the page is the top left-hand corner of the rendered element?

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Returns:
        A point, containing the location of the top left-hand corner of the element
      • getSize

        Dimension getSize()
        What is the width and height of the rendered element?

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Returns:
        The size of the element on the page.
      • getCssValue

        java.lang.String getCssValue​(java.lang.String propertyName)
        Get the value of a given CSS property. Color values should be returned as rgba strings, so, for example if the "background-color" property is set as "green" in the HTML source, the returned value will be "rgba(0, 255, 0, 1)". Note that shorthand CSS properties (e.g. background, font, border, border-top, margin, margin-top, padding, padding-top, list-style, outline, pause, cue) are not returned, in accordance with the DOM CSS2 specification - you should directly access the longhand properties (e.g. background-color) to access the desired values.

        See W3C WebDriver specification for more details.

        Parameters:
        propertyName - the css property name of the element
        Returns:
        The current, computed value of the property.