1 - Funcionalidade específica do Chrome

Estas capacidades e características são específicas ao navegador Google Chrome.

Por omissão, Selenium 4 é compatível com Chrome v75 e superiores. Note que a versão (maior) do navegador e do chromedriver devem ser idênticas.

Opções

Capacidades comuns a todos os navegadores estão descritas na página Opções.

Capacidades únicas ao Chrome podem ser encontradas na página da Google para Capacidades e & ChromeOptions

Este é um exemplo de como iniciar uma sessão Chrome com um conjunto de opções básicas:

    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
            var options = new ChromeOptions();
            driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome, options: options
      const Options = new Chrome.Options();
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(Options)
        .build();

Alguns exemplos de uso com capacidades diferentes:

Argumentos

The args parameter is for a list of command line switches to be used when starting the browser. There are two excellent resources for investigating these arguments:

Commonly used args include --start-maximized, --headless=new and --user-data-dir=...

Add an argument to options:

    options.addArguments("--start-maximized");
    options.add_argument("--start-maximized")
            options.AddArgument("--start-maximized");
      options.args << '--start-maximized'
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.addArguments('--headless=new'))
        .build();

Iniciar navegador numa localização específica

Adicionar uma localização:

    options.setBinary(getChromeLocation());
    options.binary_location = chrome_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetChromeLocation();
      options.binary = chrome_location
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setChromeBinaryPath(`Path to chrome binary`))
        .build();

Adicionar extensões

O parametro extensions aceita ficheiros crx

The extensions parameter accepts crx files. As for unpacked directories, please use the load-extension argument instead, as mentioned in this post.

Adicionar uma extensão:

    options.addExtensions(extensionFilePath);
    options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
            options.AddExtension(extensionFilePath);
      options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
      const options = new Chrome.Options();
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.addExtensions(['./test/resources/extensions/webextensions-selenium-example.crx']))
        .build();

Manter o navegador aberto

Ao definir o parametro detach para true, irá manter o navegador aberto mesmo depois do driver fechar.

Adicionar detach:

Note: This is already the default behavior in Java.

    options.add_experimental_option("detach", True)

Note: This is already the default behavior in .NET.

      options.detach = true
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.detachDriver(true))
        .build();

Excluindo parametros

Chrome adiciona vários parametros, se não os pretende adicionar, passe-os em excludeSwitches.

Um exemplo comum é voltar a activar o bloqueador de popups. A full list of default arguments can be parsed from the Chromium Source Code

Exclua parametros:

    options.setExperimentalOption("excludeSwitches", List.of("disable-popup-blocking"));
    options.add_experimental_option('excludeSwitches', ['disable-popup-blocking'])
            options.AddExcludedArgument("disable-popup-blocking");
      options.exclude_switches << 'disable-popup-blocking'
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.excludeSwitches('enable-automation'))
        .build();

Service

Examples for creating a default Service object, and for setting driver location and port can be found on the Driver Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(log_output=log_path)
            service.LogPath = GetLogLocation();

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

$stdout and $stderr are both valid values

Selenium v4.10

      service.log = $stdout

Log level

There are 6 available log levels: ALL, DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, SEVERE, and OFF. Note that --verbose is equivalent to --log-level=ALL and --silent is equivalent to --log-level=OFF, so this example is just setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogLevel(ChromiumDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of ChromiumDriverLogLevel enum

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--log-level=DEBUG'], log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-level=DEBUG'

Log file features

There are 2 features that are only available when logging to a file:

  • append log
  • readable timestamps

To use them, you need to also explicitly specify the log path and log level. The log output will be managed by the driver, not the process, so minor differences may be seen.

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withAppendLog(true).withReadableTimestamp(true).build();

Note: Java also allows toggling these features by System Property:
Property keys: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_APPEND_LOG_PROPERTY and ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_READABLE_TIMESTAMP
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--append-log', '--readable-timestamp'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--append-log'
      service.args << '--readable-timestamp'

Disabling build check

Chromedriver and Chrome browser versions should match, and if they don’t the driver will error. If you disable the build check, you can force the driver to be used with any version of Chrome. Note that this is an unsupported feature, and bugs will not be investigated.

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withBuildCheckDisabled(true).build();

Note: Java also allows disabling build checks by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_DISABLE_BUILD_CHECK
Property value: "true" or "false"

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--disable-build-check'], log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)
            service.DisableBuildCheck = true;

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--disable-build-check'

Special Features

Casting

Pode comandar dispositivos Chrome Cast, incluindo partilhar abas

Condições de rede

Pode simular vários estados de rede (como exemplo, simular situações com pouca banda).

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

Logs

Permissões

DevTools

Veja a secção Chrome DevTools para mais informação em como usar Chrome DevTools

2 - Funcionalidade específica do Edge

Estas capacidades e características são específicas ao navegador Microsoft Edge.

Microsoft Edge foi criado com recurso ao Chromium, cuja versão mais antiga suportada é a v79. Tal como o Chrome, a versão (maior) do edgedriver deve ser igual à do navegador Edge.

Todas as capacidades e opções encontradas na página Chrome page irão funcionar de igual forma para o Edge.

Opções

Capabilities common to all browsers are described on the Options page.

Capabilities unique to Chromium are documented at Google’s page for Capabilities & ChromeOptions

Este é um exemplo de como iniciar uma sessão Edge com um conjunto de opções básicas:

    EdgeOptions options = new EdgeOptions();
    driver = new EdgeDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.EdgeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Edge(options=options)
            var options = new EdgeOptions();
            driver = new EdgeDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.edge
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :edge, options: options
      driver = await env.builder()
        .setEdgeOptions(options)
        .build();
    });

Argumentos

The args parameter is for a list of command line switches to be used when starting the browser. There are two excellent resources for investigating these arguments:

Opções mais frequentes incluem --start-maximized e --headless=new e --user-data-dir=...

Adicione uma opção:

    options.addArguments("--start-maximized");
    options.add_argument("--start-maximized")
            options.AddArgument("--start-maximized");
      options.args << '--start-maximized'
        .setEdgeOptions(options.addArguments('--headless=new'))

Start browser in a specified location

The binary parameter takes the path of an alternate location of browser to use. With this parameter you can use chromedriver to drive various Chromium based browsers.

Add a browser location to options:

    options.setBinary(getEdgeLocation());
    options.binary_location = edge_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetEdgeLocation();
      options.binary = edge_location

Add extensions

The extensions parameter accepts crx files. As for unpacked directories, please use the load-extension argument instead, as mentioned in this post.

Add an extension to options:

    options.addExtensions(extensionFilePath);
    options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
            options.AddExtension(extensionFilePath);
      options.add_extension(extension_file_path)

Keeping browser open

Setting the detach parameter to true will keep the browser open after the process has ended, so long as the quit command is not sent to the driver.

Note: This is already the default behavior in Java.

    options.add_experimental_option("detach", True)

Note: This is already the default behavior in .NET.

      options.detach = true

Excluding arguments

MSEdgedriver has several default arguments it uses to start the browser. If you do not want those arguments added, pass them into excludeSwitches. A common example is to turn the popup blocker back on. A full list of default arguments can be parsed from the Chromium Source Code

Set excluded arguments on options:

    options.setExperimentalOption("excludeSwitches", List.of("disable-popup-blocking"));
    options.add_experimental_option('excludeSwitches', ['disable-popup-blocking'])
            options.AddExcludedArgument("disable-popup-blocking");
      options.exclude_switches << 'disable-popup-blocking'

Service

Examples for creating a default Service object, and for setting driver location and port can be found on the Driver Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

Selenium v4.10

    EdgeDriverService service = new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(log_output=log_path)
            service.LogPath = GetLogLocation();

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

    EdgeDriverService service = new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

$stdout and $stderr are both valid values

Selenium v4.10

      service.log = $stdout

Log level

There are 6 available log levels: ALL, DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, SEVERE, and OFF. Note that --verbose is equivalent to --log-level=ALL and --silent is equivalent to --log-level=OFF, so this example is just setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLoglevel(ChromiumDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of ChromiumDriverLogLevel enum

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--log-level=DEBUG'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-level=DEBUG'

Log file features

There are 2 features that are only available when logging to a file:

  • append log
  • readable timestamps

To use them, you need to also explicitly specify the log path and log level. The log output will be managed by the driver, not the process, so minor differences may be seen.

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withAppendLog(true).withReadableTimestamp(true).build();

Note: Java also allows toggling these features by System Property:
Property keys: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_APPEND_LOG_PROPERTY and EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_READABLE_TIMESTAMP
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--append-log', '--readable-timestamp'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--append-log'
      service.args << '--readable-timestamp'

Disabling build check

Edge browser and msedgedriver versions should match, and if they don’t the driver will error. If you disable the build check, you can force the driver to be used with any version of Edge. Note that this is an unsupported feature, and bugs will not be investigated.

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withBuildCheckDisabled(true).build();

Note: Java also allows disabling build checks by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_DISABLE_BUILD_CHECK
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--disable-build-check'], log_output=log_path)
            service.DisableBuildCheck = true;

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--disable-build-check'

Modo compatibilidade Internet Explorer

O Microsoft Edge pode ser controlado em modo “compatibilidade Internet Explorer”, são usadas classes do Internet Explorer Driver em conjunção com o Microsoft Edge. Leia a página Internet Explorer para mais detalhes.

Special Features

Some browsers have implemented additional features that are unique to them.

Casting

You can drive Chrome Cast devices with Edge, including sharing tabs

Network conditions

You can simulate various network conditions.

Logs

Permissions

DevTools

See the Chrome DevTools section for more information about using DevTools in Edge

3 - Funcionalidade específica do Firefox

Estas capacidades e características são específicas ao navegador Mozilla Firefox.

Por omissão, Selenium 4 é compatível com Firefox 78 ou superior. Recomendamos que use sempre a versão mais recente do geckodriver.

Opções

Capacidades comuns a todos os navegadores estão descritas na página Opções.

Capacidades únicas ao Firefox podem ser encontradas na página da Mozilla para firefoxOptions

Este é um exemplo de como iniciar uma sessão Firefox com um conjunto de opções básicas:

    FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
    driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.FirefoxOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(options=options)
            var options = new FirefoxOptions();
            driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.firefox
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox, options: options
      let options = new firefox.Options();
      driver = await env.builder()
        .setFirefoxOptions(options)
        .build();

Alguns exemplos de uso com capacidades diferentes:

Argumentos

O parametro args é usado para indicar uma lista de opções ao iniciar o navegador. Opções mais frequentes incluem -headless e "-profile", "/path/to/profile"

Adicione uma opção:

    options.addArguments("-headless");
    options.add_argument("-headless")
            options.AddArgument("-headless");
      options.args << '-headless'
    let driver = await env.builder()
      .setFirefoxOptions(options.addArguments('--headless'))
      .build();

Iniciar navegador numa localização específica

O parametro binary é usado contendo o caminho para uma localização específica do navegador. Como exemplo, pode usar este parametro para indicar ao geckodriver a versão Firefox Nightly ao invés da versão de produção, quando ambas versões estão presentes no seu computador.

Adicionar uma localização:

    options.setBinary(getFirefoxLocation());
    options.binary_location = firefox_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetFirefoxLocation();
      options.binary = firefox_location

Perfis

Existem várias formas de trabalhar com perfis Firefox

FirefoxProfile profile = new FirefoxProfile();
FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
options.setProfile(profile);
driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.options import Options
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile import FirefoxProfile
options=Options()
firefox_profile = FirefoxProfile()
firefox_profile.set_preference("javascript.enabled", False)
options.profile = firefox_profile
  
var options = new FirefoxOptions();
var profile = new FirefoxProfile();
options.Profile = profile;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
profile = Selenium::WebDriver::Firefox::Profile.new
profile['browser.download.dir'] = "/tmp/webdriver-downloads"
options = Selenium::WebDriver::Firefox::Options.new(profile: profile)
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox, options: options
  
const { Builder } = require("selenium-webdriver");
const firefox = require('selenium-webdriver/firefox');

const options = new firefox.Options();
let profile = '/path to custom profile';
options.setProfile(profile);
const driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('firefox')
    .setFirefoxOptions(options)
    .build();
  
val options = FirefoxOptions()
options.profile = FirefoxProfile()
driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging various issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=log_path, service_args=['--log', 'debug'])

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Log level

There are 7 available log levels: fatal, error, warn, info, config, debug, trace. If logging is specified the level defaults to info.

Note that -v is equivalent to -log debug and -vv is equivalent to log trace, so this examples is just for setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogLevel(FirefoxDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of FirefoxDriverLogLevel enum

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=log_path, service_args=['--log', 'debug'])

Selenium v4.10

      service.args += %w[--log debug]

Truncated Logs

The driver logs everything that gets sent to it, including string representations of large binaries, so Firefox truncates lines by default. To turn off truncation:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withTruncatedLogs(false).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_NO_TRUNCATE
Property value: "true" or "false"

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(service_args=['--log-no-truncate', '--log', 'debug'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-no-truncate'

Profile Root

The default directory for profiles is the system temporary directory. If you do not have access to that directory, or want profiles to be created some place specific, you can change the profile root directory:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withProfileRoot(profileDirectory).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_PROFILE_ROOT
Property value: String representing path to profile root directory

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(service_args=['--profile-root', temp_dir])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args += ['--profile-root', root_directory]

Special Features

Extras

Ao invés do Chrome, os extras do Firefos não são adicionados como parte das capacidades, mas sim após iniciar o driver.

Unlike Chrome, Firefox extensions are not added as part of capabilities as mentioned in this issue, they are created after starting the driver.

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

Instalação

Um arquivo xpi que pode ser obtido da página Mozilla Extras

    driver.installExtension(xpiPath);
    driver.install_addon(addon_path)
            driver.InstallAddOnFromFile(Path.GetFullPath(extensionFilePath));
      driver.install_addon(extension_file_path)
    const xpiPath = path.resolve('./test/resources/extensions/selenium-example.xpi')
    let driver = await env.builder().build();
    let id = await driver.installAddon(xpiPath);

Desinstalação

Desinstalar uma extensão implica saber o seu id que pode ser obtido como valor de retorno durante a instalação.

    driver.uninstallExtension(id);
    driver.uninstall_addon(id)

Selenium v4.5

            driver.UninstallAddOn(extensionId);
      driver.uninstall_addon(extension_id)
    const xpiPath = path.resolve('./test/resources/extensions/selenium-example.xpi')
    let driver = await env.builder().build();
    let id = await driver.installAddon(xpiPath);
    await driver.uninstallAddon(id);

Instalação de extensões não assinadas

Quando trabalhar em uma extensão não terminada ou não publicada, provavelmente ela não estará assinada. Desta forma, só pode ser instalada como “temporária”. Isto pode ser feito passando uma arquivo ZIP ou uma pasta, este é um exemplo com uma pasta:

    driver.installExtension(path, true);
    driver.install_addon(addon_path, temporary=True)

Selenium v4.5

            driver.InstallAddOnFromDirectory(Path.GetFullPath(extensionDirPath), true);

Selenium v4.5

      driver.install_addon(extension_dir_path, true)

Captura de tela inteira

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

Contexto

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

4 - Funcionalidade específica do IE

Estas capacidades e características são específicas ao navegador Microsoft Internet Explorer.

Desde Junho de 2022, o Projecto Selenium deixou de suportar oficialmente o navegador Internet Explorer. O driver Internet Explorer continua a suportar a execução do Microsoft Edge no modo “IE Compatibility Mode.”

Considerações especiais

O IE Driver é o único driver mantido directamente pelo Projecto Selenium. Embora existam binários para as versões de 32 e 64 bits, existem algumas limitações conhecidas com o driver de 64 bits. Desta forma, recomenda-se a utilização do driver de 32 bits.

Informação adicional sobre como usar o Internet Explorer pode ser encontrada na página IE Driver Server

Opções

Este é um exemplo de como iniciar o navegador Microsoft Edge em modo compatibilidade Internet Explorer usando um conjunto de opções básicas:

        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.attachToEdgeChrome();
        options.withEdgeExecutablePath(getEdgeLocation());
        driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.IeOptions()
    options.attach_to_edge_chrome = True
    options.edge_executable_path = edge_bin
    driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)
            var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
            options.AttachToEdgeChrome = true;
            options.EdgeExecutablePath = GetEdgeLocation();
            driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.ie
      options.attach_to_edge_chrome = true
      options.edge_executable_path = edge_location
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :ie, options: options

A partir do driver versão v4.5.0:

  • Se o IE não estiver presente no sistema (ausente por omissão no Windows 11), não necessita usar os parametros “attachToEdgeChrome” e “withEdgeExecutablePath”, pois o IE Driver irá encontrar e usar o Edge automaticamente.
  • Se o IE e o Edge estiverem ambos presentes no sistema, use o parametro “attachToEdgeChrome”, o IE Driver irá encontrar e usar o Edge automaticamente.

So, if IE is not on the system, you only need:

        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.IeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)
            var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
            driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.ie
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :ie, options: options
let driver = await new Builder()
.forBrowser('internet explorer')
.setIEOptions(options)
.build();
<p><a href=/documentation/about/contributing/#moving-examples>
<span class="selenium-badge-code" data-bs-toggle="tooltip" data-bs-placement="right"
      title="One or more of these examples need to be implemented in the examples directory; click for details in the contribution guide">Move Code</span></a></p>


val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)

Aqui pode ver alguns exemplos de utilização com capacidades diferentes:

fileUploadDialogTimeout

Em alguns ambientes, o Internet Explorer pode expirar ao abrir a Caixa de Diálogo de upload de arquivo. O IEDriver tem um tempo limite padrão de 1000 ms, mas você pode aumentar o tempo limite usando o recurso fileUploadDialogTimeout.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.waitForUploadDialogUpTo(Duration.ofSeconds(2));
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.file_upload_dialog_timeout = 2000
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

# Navegar para Url
driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.FileUploadDialogTimeout = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(2000);
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.file_upload_dialog_timeout = 2000
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().fileUploadDialogTimeout(2000);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.waitForUploadDialogUpTo(Duration.ofSeconds(2))
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ensureCleanSession

Quando definido como true, este recurso limpa o Cache, Histórico do navegador e cookies para todas as instâncias em execução do InternetExplorer, incluindo aquelas iniciadas manualmente ou pelo driver. Por padrão, é definido como false.

Usar este recurso causará queda de desempenho quando iniciar o navegador, pois o driver irá esperar até que o cache seja limpo antes de iniciar o navegador IE.

Esse recurso aceita um valor booleano como parâmetro.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.destructivelyEnsureCleanSession();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ensure_clean_session = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

# Navegar para Url
driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.EnsureCleanSession = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.ensure_clean_session = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().ensureCleanSession(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.destructivelyEnsureCleanSession()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ignoreZoomSetting

O driver do InternetExplorer espera que o nível de zoom do navegador seja de 100%, caso contrário, o driver lançará uma exceção. Este comportamento padrão pode ser desativado definindo ignoreZoomSetting como true.

Esse recurso aceita um valor booleano como parâmetro.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.ignoreZoomSettings();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ignore_zoom_level = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

# Navegar para Url
driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.IgnoreZoomLevel = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.ignore_zoom_level = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().ignoreZoomSetting(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.ignoreZoomSettings()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ignoreProtectedModeSettings

Se deve ignorar a verificação do Modo protegido durante o lançamento uma nova sessão do IE.

Se não for definido e as configurações do Modo protegido não forem iguais para todas as zonas, uma exceção será lançada pelo driver.

Se a capacidade for definida como true, os testes podem tornar-se instáveis, não responderem ou os navegadores podem travar. No entanto, esta ainda é de longe a segunda melhor escolha, e a primeira escolha sempre deve ser definir as configurações do Modo protegido de cada zona manualmente. Se um usuário estiver usando esta propriedade, apenas um “melhor esforço” no suporte será dado.

Esse recurso aceita um valor booleano como parâmetro.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.introduceFlakinessByIgnoringSecurityDomains();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ignore_protected_mode_settings = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

# Navegar para Url
driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.IntroduceInstabilityByIgnoringProtectedModeSettings = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.ignore_protected_mode_settings = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().introduceFlakinessByIgnoringProtectedModeSettings(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.introduceFlakinessByIgnoringSecurityDomains()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

silent

Quando definido como true, esse recurso suprime a saída de diagnóstico do IEDriverServer.

Esse recurso aceita um valor booleano como parâmetro.

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.setCapability("silent", true);
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.set_capability("silent", True)
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

# Navegar para Url
driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.AddAdditionalInternetExplorerOption("silent", true);
IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
  
    # Por favor inclua um PR para adicionar uma amostra de código
  
const {Builder,By, Capabilities} = require('selenium-webdriver');
let caps = Capabilities.ie();
caps.set('silent', true);

(async function example() {
    let driver = await new Builder()
        .forBrowser('internet explorer')
        .withCapabilities(caps)
        .build();
    try {
        await driver.get('http://www.google.com/ncr');
    }
    finally {
        await driver.quit();
    }
})();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.setCapability("silent", true)
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

Opções de linha de comando do IE

O Internet Explorer inclui várias opções de linha de comando que permitem solucionar problemas e configurar o navegador.

Os seguintes pontos descrevem algumas opções de linha de comando com suporte

  • -private: Usado para iniciar o IE no modo de navegação privada. Isso funciona para o IE 8 e versões posteriores.

  • -k: Inicia o Internet Explorer no modo quiosque. O navegador é aberto em uma janela maximizada que não exibe a barra de endereço, os botões de navegação ou a barra de status.

  • -extoff: Inicia o IE no modo sem add-on. Esta opção é usada especificamente para solucionar problemas com complementos do navegador. Funciona no IE 7 e versões posteriores.

Nota: forceCreateProcessApi deve ser habilitado para que os argumentos da linha de comando funcionem.

import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions;

public class ieTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe();
        options.addCommandSwitches("-k");
        InternetExplorerDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
        try {
            driver.get("https://google.com/ncr");
            Capabilities caps = driver.getCapabilities();
            System.out.println(caps);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.add_argument('-private')
options.force_create_process_api = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

# Navegar para Url
driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
using System;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

namespace ieTest {
 class Program {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
   InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
   options.ForceCreateProcessApi = true;
   options.BrowserCommandLineArguments = "-k";
   IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
   driver.Url = "https://google.com/ncr";
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.force_create_process_api = true
options.add_argument('-k')
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)

begin
  # Navegar para URL
  driver.get 'https://google.com'
  puts(driver.capabilities.to_json)
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options();
options.addBrowserCommandSwitches('-k');
options.addBrowserCommandSwitches('-private');
options.forceCreateProcessApi(true);

driver = await env.builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe()
    options.addCommandSwitches("-k")
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

forceCreateProcessApi

Força a inicialização do Internet Explorer usando a API CreateProcess. O valor padrão é falso.

Para IE 8 e superior, esta opção requer que o valor de registro “TabProcGrowth” seja definido como 0.

import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions;

public class ieTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe();
        InternetExplorerDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
        try {
            driver.get("https://google.com/ncr");
            Capabilities caps = driver.getCapabilities();
            System.out.println(caps);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.force_create_process_api = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

# Navegar para Url
driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
using System;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

namespace ieTest {
 class Program {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
   InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
   options.ForceCreateProcessApi = true;
   IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
   driver.Url = "https://google.com/ncr";
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.force_create_process_api = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)

begin
  # Navegar para Url
  driver.get 'https://google.com'
  puts(driver.capabilities.to_json)
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options();
options.forceCreateProcessApi(true);

driver = await env.builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe()
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging various issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogFile(getLogLocation())

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGFILE_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=log_path, log_level='INFO')

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogOutput(System.out)

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGFILE_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Log Level

There are 6 available log levels: FATAL, ERROR, WARN, INFO, DEBUG, and TRACE If logging output is specified, the default level is FATAL

                .withLogLevel(InternetExplorerDriverLogLevel.WARN)

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGLEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of InternetExplorerDriverLogLevel.DEBUG.toString() enum

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=log_path, log_level='WARN')
            service.LoggingLevel = InternetExplorerDriverLogLevel.Warn;

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '-log-level=WARN'

Supporting Files Path

                .withExtractPath(getTempDirectory())
**Note**: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:\ Property key: `InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_EXTRACT_PATH_PROPERTY`\ Property value: String representing path to supporting files directory

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.IeService(service_args=["–extract-path="+temp_dir])
            service.LibraryExtractionPath = GetTempDirectory();

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << "–extract-path=#{root_directory}"

5 - Funcionalidade específica do Safari

Estas capacidades e características são específicas ao navegador Apple Safari.

Ao invés dos drivers para Chromium e Firefox, o safaridriver faz parte to sistema Operativo. Para activar a automação no Safari, execute o seguinte comando no terminal:

safaridriver --enable

Opções

Capacidades comuns a todos os navegadores estão descritas na página Opções.

Capacidades únicas ao Safari podem ser encontradas na página da Apple WebDriver para Safari

Este é um exemplo de como iniciar uma sessão Safari com um conjunto de opções básicas::

        SafariOptions options = new SafariOptions();
        driver = new SafariDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.SafariOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Safari(options=options)
            var options = new SafariOptions();
            driver = new SafariDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.safari
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :safari, options: options
      let driver = await env.builder()
      .setSafariOptions(options)
      .build();
val options = SafariOptions()
val driver = SafariDriver(options)

Mobile (celular)

Se pretende automatizar Safari em iOS, deve olhar para o Projecto Appium.

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Logging

Unlike other browsers, Safari doesn’t let you choose where logs are output, or change levels. The one option available is to turn logs off or on. If logs are toggled on, they can be found at:~/Library/Logs/com.apple.WebDriver/.

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogging(true)

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: SafariDriverService.SAFARI_DRIVER_LOGGING
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.SafariService(service_args=["--diagnose"])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--diagnose'

Safari Technology Preview

Apple provides a development version of their browser — Safari Technology Preview To use this version in your code: