Keyboard actions

A representation of any key input device for interacting with a web page.

There are only 2 actions that can be accomplished with a keyboard: pressing down on a key, and releasing a pressed key. In addition to supporting ASCII characters, each keyboard key has a representation that can be pressed or released in designated sequences.

Keys

In addition to the keys represented by regular unicode, unicode values have been assigned to other keyboard keys for use with Selenium. Each language has its own way to reference these keys; the full list can be found here.

Use the [Java Keys enum](https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/blob/selenium-4.2.0/java/src/org/openqa/selenium/Keys.java#L28)
Use the [Python Keys class](https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/blob/selenium-4.2.0/py/selenium/webdriver/common/keys.py#L23)
Use the [.NET static Keys class](https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/blob/selenium-4.2.0/dotnet/src/webdriver/Keys.cs#L28)
Use the [Ruby KEYS constant](https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/blob/selenium-4.2.0/rb/lib/selenium/webdriver/common/keys.rb#L28)
Use the [JavaScript KEYS constant](https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/blob/selenium-4.2.0/javascript/node/selenium-webdriver/lib/input.js#L44)
Use the [Java Keys enum](https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/blob/selenium-4.2.0/java/src/org/openqa/selenium/Keys.java#L28)

Key down

                .keyDown(Keys.SHIFT)
                .sendKeys("a")
                .perform();
    ActionChains(driver)\
        .key_down(Keys.SHIFT)\
        .send_keys("abc")\
        .perform()
                .KeyDown(Keys.Shift)
                .SendKeys("a")
                .Perform();
    driver.action
          .key_down(:shift)
          .send_keys('a')
          .perform
      await driver.actions()
        .keyDown(Key.SHIFT)
        .sendKeys('a')
        .perform()
        Actions(driver)
                .keyDown(Keys.SHIFT)
                .sendKeys("a")
                .perform()

Key up

                .keyDown(Keys.SHIFT)
                .sendKeys("a")
                .keyUp(Keys.SHIFT)
                .sendKeys("b")
                .perform();
    ActionChains(driver)\
        .key_down(Keys.SHIFT)\
        .send_keys("a")\
        .key_up(Keys.SHIFT)\
        .send_keys("b")\
        .perform()
            new Actions(driver)
                .KeyDown(Keys.Shift)
                .SendKeys("a")
                .KeyUp(Keys.Shift)
                .SendKeys("b")
                .Perform();
    driver.action
          .key_down(:shift)
          .send_keys('a')
          .key_up(:shift)
          .send_keys('b')
          .perform
      await driver.actions()
        .keyDown(Key.SHIFT)
        .sendKeys('a')
        .keyUp(Key.SHIFT)
        .sendKeys('b')
        .perform()
        Actions(driver)
                .keyDown(Keys.SHIFT)
                .sendKeys("a")
                .keyUp(Keys.SHIFT)
                .sendKeys("b")
                .perform()

Send keys

This is a convenience method in the Actions API that combines keyDown and keyUp commands in one action. Executing this command differs slightly from using the element method, but primarily this gets used when needing to type multiple characters in the middle of other actions.

Active Element

                .sendKeys("abc")
                .perform();
    ActionChains(driver)\
        .send_keys("abc")\
        .perform()

            new Actions(driver)
                .SendKeys("abc")
    driver.action
          .send_keys('abc')
          .perform
      const textField = driver.findElement(By.id('textInput'))
      await textField.click()
        Actions(driver)
                .sendKeys("abc")
                .perform()

Designated Element

        new Actions(driver)
                .sendKeys(textField, "Selenium!")
                .perform();
    text_input = driver.find_element(By.ID, "textInput")
    ActionChains(driver)\
        .send_keys_to_element(text_input, "abc")\
        .perform()
            driver.FindElement(By.TagName("body")).Click();
            
            IWebElement textField = driver.FindElement(By.Id("textInput"));
            new Actions(driver)
    text_field = driver.find_element(id: 'textInput')
    driver.action
          .send_keys(text_field, 'Selenium!')
          .perform

Selenium v4.5.0

      const textField = await driver.findElement(By.id('textInput'))

      await driver.actions()
        .sendKeys(textField, 'abc')
        .perform()
        val textField = driver.findElement(By.id("textInput"))
        Actions(driver)
                .sendKeys(textField, "Selenium!")
                .perform()

Copy and Paste

Here’s an example of using all of the above methods to conduct a copy / paste action. Note that the key to use for this operation will be different depending on if it is a Mac OS or not. This code will end up with the text: SeleniumSelenium!

        new Actions(driver)
                .sendKeys(textField, "Selenium!")
                .sendKeys(Keys.ARROW_LEFT)
                .keyDown(Keys.SHIFT)
                .sendKeys(Keys.ARROW_UP)
                .keyUp(Keys.SHIFT)
                .keyDown(cmdCtrl)
                .sendKeys("xvv")
                .keyUp(cmdCtrl)
                .perform();

        Assertions.assertEquals("SeleniumSelenium!", textField.getAttribute("value"));
    }
    cmd_ctrl = Keys.COMMAND if sys.platform == 'darwin' else Keys.CONTROL

    ActionChains(driver)\
        .send_keys("Selenium!")\
        .send_keys(Keys.ARROW_LEFT)\
        .key_down(Keys.SHIFT)\
        .send_keys(Keys.ARROW_UP)\
        .key_up(Keys.SHIFT)\
        .key_down(cmd_ctrl)\
        .send_keys("xvv")\
        .key_up(cmd_ctrl)\
        .perform()

            var capabilities = ((WebDriver)driver).Capabilities;
            String platformName = (string)capabilities.GetCapability("platformName");

            String cmdCtrl = platformName.Contains("mac") ? Keys.Command : Keys.Control;

            new Actions(driver)
                .SendKeys("Selenium!")
                .SendKeys(Keys.ArrowLeft)
                .KeyDown(Keys.Shift)
                .SendKeys(Keys.ArrowUp)
    cmd_ctrl = driver.capabilities.platform_name.include?('mac') ? :command : :control
    driver.action
          .send_keys('Selenium!')
          .send_keys(:arrow_left)
          .key_down(:shift)
          .send_keys(:arrow_up)
          .key_up(:shift)
          .key_down(cmd_ctrl)
          .send_keys('xvv')
          .key_up(cmd_ctrl)
          .perform
      const cmdCtrl = platform.includes('darwin') ? Key.COMMAND : Key.CONTROL

      await driver.actions()
        .click(textField)
        .sendKeys('Selenium!')
        .sendKeys(Key.ARROW_LEFT)
        .keyDown(Key.SHIFT)
        .sendKeys(Key.ARROW_UP)
        .keyUp(Key.SHIFT)
        .keyDown(cmdCtrl)
        .sendKeys('xvv')
        .keyUp(cmdCtrl)
        .perform()
        val cmdCtrl = if(platformName == Platform.MAC) Keys.COMMAND else Keys.CONTROL

        val textField = driver.findElement(By.id("textInput"))
        Actions(driver)
                .sendKeys(textField, "Selenium!")
                .sendKeys(Keys.ARROW_LEFT)
                .keyDown(Keys.SHIFT)
                .sendKeys(Keys.ARROW_UP)
                .keyUp(Keys.SHIFT)
                .keyDown(cmdCtrl)
                .sendKeys("xvv")
                .keyUp(cmdCtrl)
                .perform()
Última modificação September 20, 2022: fix incorrect aliases from previous changes (d944c93fd71)