これは、このセクションの複数ページの印刷可能なビューです。 印刷するには、ここをクリックしてください.

このページの通常のビューに戻る.

WebDriver

WebDriverはブラウザをネイティブに操作します。詳細については、こちらをご覧ください。

WebDriverは、ユーザーがローカルまたはSeleniumサーバーを使用するリモートマシンで行うように、ブラウザをネイティブに動かし、ブラウザの自動化に関して大きく前進します。

Selenium WebDriverは言語バインディングと個々のブラウザ制御コードの実装の両方を参照します。
これは通常、単に WebDriver と呼ばれます。

Selenium WebDriverは、W3C勧告です。

  • WebDriverはシンプルでより簡潔なプログラミングインターフェイスとして設計されています。

  • WebDriverはコンパクトなオブジェクト指向APIです。

  • ブラウザーを効果的に動かします。

1 - 入門

Seleniumを初めて使用する場合は、すぐに習得するのに役立つリソースがいくつかあります。

Seleniumは市場で主要なブラウザの全てを WebDriver を使うことでサポートしています。 WebDriverとはAPI群とプロトコルです。これらはウェブブラウザの動作をコントロールするための言語中立なインターフェイスを定義しています。 それぞれのブラウザは特定のWebDriverの実装を持っており、これらは driver と呼ばれます。 driverはブラウザに委譲する責務を持つコンポーネントであり、Seleniumとブラウザ間の通信を処理します。

この分離は、ブラウザベンダーに自分たちのブラウザでの実装の責任を持たせるための意図的な努力のひとつです。 Seleniumは可能な場合これらのサードパーティ製のdriverを使いますが、それが現実的でない場合のためにプロジェクトでメンテナンスしているdriverも提供しています。

Seleniumフレームワークはこれら全ての要素をユーザ向けのインターフェイスを通して結びつけます。このインターフェイスは異なるブラウザバックエンドを透過的に使えるようにし、クロスブラウザ・クロスプラットフォームの自動化を可能にします。

Selenium setup is quite different from the setup of other commercial tools. Before you can start writing Selenium code, you have to install the language bindings libraries for your language of choice, the browser you want to use, and the driver for that browser.

Follow the links below to get up and going with Selenium WebDriver.

If you wish to start with a low-code/record and playback tool, please check Selenium IDE

Once you get things working, if you want to scale up your tests, check out the Selenium Grid.

1.1 - Seleniumライブラリのインストール

お気に入りのプログラミング言語用にSeleniumライブラリを設定します。

最初にあなたの自動化プロジェクトにSeleniumのバインディングをインストールする必要があります。 インストールの方法は選択した言語によって異なります。

Requirements by language

View the minimum supported Java version here.

Installation of Selenium libraries for Java is accomplished using a build tool.

Maven

Specify the dependencies in the project’s pom.xml file:

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.seleniumhq.selenium</groupId>
            <artifactId>selenium-java</artifactId>
            <version>${selenium.version}</version>

Gradle

Specify the dependency in the project build.gradle file as testImplementation:

    testImplementation 'org.seleniumhq.selenium:selenium-java:4.20.0'
    testImplementation 'org.junit.jupiter:junit-jupiter-engine:5.10.2'

The minimum supported Python version for each Selenium version can be found in Supported Python Versions on PyPi

There are a couple different ways to install Selenium.

Pip

pip install selenium

Download

Alternatively you can download the PyPI source archive (selenium-x.x.x.tar.gz) and install it using setup.py:

python setup.py install

Require in project

To use it in a project, add it to the requirements.txt file:

selenium==4.20.0

A list of all supported frameworks for each version of Selenium is available on Nuget

There are a few options for installing Selenium.

Packet Manager

Install-Package Selenium.WebDriver

.NET CLI

dotnet add package Selenium.WebDriver

CSProj

in the project’s csproj file, specify the dependency as a PackageReference in ItemGroup:

      <PackageReference Include="Selenium.WebDriver" Version="4.20.0" />

Additional considerations

Further items of note for using Visual Studio Code (vscode) and C#

Install the compatible .NET SDK as per the section above. Also install the vscode extensions (Ctrl-Shift-X) for C# and NuGet. Follow the instruction here to create and run the “Hello World” console project using C#. You may also create a NUnit starter project using the command line dotnet new NUnit. Make sure the file %appdata%\NuGet\nuget.config is configured properly as some developers reported that it will be empty due to some issues. If nuget.config is empty, or not configured properly, then .NET builds will fail for Selenium Projects. Add the following section to the file nuget.config if it is empty:

<configuration>
  <packageSources>
    <add key="nuget.org" value="https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json" protocolVersion="3" />
    <add key="nuget.org" value="https://www.nuget.org/api/v2/" />   
  </packageSources>
...

For more info about nuget.config click here. You may have to customize nuget.config to meet you needs.

Now, go back to vscode, press Ctrl-Shift-P, and type “NuGet Add Package”, and enter the required Selenium packages such as Selenium.WebDriver. Press Enter and select the version. Now you can use the examples in the documentation related to C# with vscode.

You can see the minimum required version of Ruby for any given Selenium version on rubygems.org

Selenium can be installed two different ways.

Install manually

gem install selenium-webdriver

Add to project’s gemfile

gem 'selenium-devtools', '= 0.125.0'

You can find the minimum required version of Node for any given version of Selenium in the Node Support Policy section on npmjs

Selenium is typically installed using npm.

Install locally

npm install selenium-webdriver

Add to project

In your project’s package.json, add requirement to dependencies:

        "mocha": "10.4.0"
Use the Java bindings for Kotlin.

Next Step

Create your first Selenium script

1.2 - 最初のSeleniumスクリプトを書く

Seleniumスクリプトを作成するための段階的な説明

Seleniumをインストールし、 すると、Seleniumコードを書く準備が整います。

Eight Basic Components

Seleniumが行うことはすべて、ブラウザコマンドを送信して、何かを実行したり、情報の要求を送信したりすることです。 Seleniumで行うことのほとんどは、次の基本的なコマンドの組み合わせです。

Click on the link to “View full example on GitHub” to see the code in context.

1. ドライバーインスタンスでセッションを開始します

For more details on starting a session read our documentation on driver sessions

        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver = webdriver.Chrome()
        IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
    driver = await new Builder().forBrowser(Browser.CHROME).build();
        driver = ChromeDriver()

2. Take action on browser

In this example we are ブラウザがナビゲートするコマンドを送信します

        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");
driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");
driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html')
    await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html');
        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

3. ブラウザに関する情報をリクエストします

There are a bunch of types of information about the browser you can request, including window handles, browser size / position, cookies, alerts, etc.

        driver.getTitle();
title = driver.title
        var title = driver.Title;
    let title = await driver.getTitle();
        val title = driver.title

4. Establish Waiting Strategy

Synchronizing the code with the current state of the browser is one of the biggest challenges with Selenium, and doing it well is an advanced topic.

Essentially you want to make sure that the element is on the page before you attempt to locate it and the element is in an interactable state before you attempt to interact with it.

An implicit wait is rarely the best solution, but it’s the easiest to demonstrate here, so we’ll use it as a placeholder.

Read more about Waiting strategies.

        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500));
driver.implicitly_wait(0.5)
        driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(500);
driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 500
    await driver.manage().setTimeouts({implicit: 500});
        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500))

5. 要素を検索するためのコマンドを送信します

The majority of commands in most Selenium sessions are element related, and you can’t interact with one without first finding an element

        WebElement textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"));
        WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"));
text_box = driver.find_element(by=By.NAME, value="my-text")
submit_button = driver.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value="button")
        var textBox = driver.FindElement(By.Name("my-text"));
        var submitButton = driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button"));
text_box = driver.find_element(name: 'my-text')
submit_button = driver.find_element(tag_name: 'button')
    let textBox = await driver.findElement(By.name('my-text'));
    let submitButton = await driver.findElement(By.css('button'));
        var textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"))
        val submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"))

6. 要素に対してアクションを実行する

There are only a handful of actions to take on an element, but you will use them frequently.

        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium");
        submitButton.click();
text_box.send_keys("Selenium")
submit_button.click()
        textBox.SendKeys("Selenium");
        submitButton.Click();
text_box.send_keys('Selenium')
submit_button.click
    await textBox.sendKeys('Selenium');
    await submitButton.click();
        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium")
        submitButton.click()

7. 要素に関する情報をリクエストします

Elements store a lot of information that can be requested.

        message.getText();
text = message.text
        var value = message.Text;
    let value = await message.getText();
        val value = message.getText()

8. セッションを終了します

This ends the driver process, which by default closes the browser as well. No more commands can be sent to this driver instance.

See Quitting Sessions.

Running Selenium File

Next Steps

Most Selenium users execute many sessions and need to organize them to minimize duplication and keep the code more maintainable. Read on to learn about how to put this code into context for your use case with Using Selenium.

1.3 - Organizing and Executing Selenium Code

Scaling Selenium execution with an IDE and a Test Runner library

If you want to run more than a handful of one-off scripts, you need to be able to organize and work with your code. This page should give you ideas for how to actually do productive things with your Selenium code.

Common Uses

Most people use Selenium to execute automated tests for web applications, but Selenium support any use case of browser automation.

Repetitive Tasks

Perhaps you need to log into a website and download something, or submit a form. You can create a Selenium script to run with a service at preset times.

Web Scraping

Are you looking to collect data from a site that doesn’t have an API? Selenium will let you do this, but please make sure you are familiar with the website’s terms of service as some websites do not permit it and others will even block Selenium.

Testing

Running Selenium for testing requires making assertions on actions taken by Selenium. So a good assertion library is required. Additional features to provide structure for tests require use of Test Runner.

IDEs

Regardless of how you use Selenium code, you won’t be very effective writing or executing it without a good Integrated Developer Environment. Here are some common options…

Test Runner

Even if you aren’t using Selenium for testing, if you have advanced use cases, it might make sense to use a test runner to better organize your code. Being able to use before/after hooks and run things in groups or in parallel can be very useful.

Choosing

There are many different test runners available.

All the code examples in this documentation can be found in (or is being moved to) our example directories that use test runners and get executed every release to ensure all the code is correct and updated. Here is a list of test runners with links. The first item is the one that is used by this repository and the one that will be used for all examples on this page.

  • JUnit - A widely-used testing framework for Java-based Selenium tests.
  • TestNG - Offers extra features like parallel test execution and parameterized tests.
  • pytest - A preferred choice for many, thanks to its simplicity and powerful plugins.
  • unittest - Python’s standard library testing framework.
  • NUnit - A popular unit-testing framework for .NET.
  • MS Test - Microsoft’s own unit testing framework.
  • RSpec - The most widely used testing library for running Selenium tests in Ruby.
  • Minitest - A lightweight testing framework that comes with Ruby standard library.
  • Jest - Primarily known as a testing framework for React, it can also be used for Selenium tests.
  • Mocha - The most common JS library for running Selenium tests.

Installing

This is very similar to what was required in Install a Selenium Library. This code is only showing examples for what is being used in our Documentation Examples project.

Maven

Gradle

To use it in a project, add it to the requirements.txt file:

in the project’s csproj file, specify the dependency as a PackageReference in ItemGroup:

Add to project’s gemfile

In your project’s package.json, add requirement to dependencies:

Asserting

		String title = driver.getTitle();
		assertEquals("Web form", title);
    expect(value).to eq('Received!')
      let title = await driver.getTitle();
      assert.equal("Web form", title);

Setting Up and Tearing Down

Set Up

	@BeforeEach
	public void setup() {
		driver = new ChromeDriver();
	}

Tear Down

	@AfterEach
	public void teardown() {
		driver.quit();
	}

Set Up

  before do
    @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
  end

Tear Down

  config.after { @driver&.quit }
### Set Up
    before(async function () {
      driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
    });
### Tear Down
    after(async () => await driver.quit());

Executing

Maven

mvn clean test

Gradle

gradle clean test

Mocha

mocha runningTests.spec.js

npx

npx mocha runningTests.spec.js

Examples

In First script, we saw each of the components of a Selenium script. Here’s an example of that code using a test runner:

package dev.selenium.getting_started;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;

import java.time.Duration;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.AfterEach;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.BeforeEach;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class UsingSeleniumTest {

	WebDriver driver;

	@BeforeEach
	public void setup() {
		driver = new ChromeDriver();
	}

	@Test
	public void eightComponents() {

		driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500));
		driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");

		String title = driver.getTitle();
		assertEquals("Web form", title);

		WebElement textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"));
		WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"));

		textBox.sendKeys("Selenium");
		submitButton.click();

		WebElement message = driver.findElement(By.id("message"));
		String value = message.getText();
		assertEquals("Received!", value);

	}

	@AfterEach
	public void teardown() {
		driver.quit();
	}

}
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By


def test_eight_components():
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()

    driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

    title = driver.title
    assert title == "Web form"

    driver.implicitly_wait(0.5)

    text_box = driver.find_element(by=By.NAME, value="my-text")
    submit_button = driver.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value="button")

    text_box.send_keys("Selenium")
    submit_button.click()

    message = driver.find_element(by=By.ID, value="message")
    value = message.text
    assert value == "Received!"

    driver.quit()
using System;
using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace SeleniumDocs.GettingStarted
{
    [TestClass]
    public class UsingSeleniumTest
    {

        [TestMethod]
        public void EightComponents()
        {
            IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

            driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");

            var title = driver.Title;
            Assert.AreEqual("Web form", title);

            driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(500);

            var textBox = driver.FindElement(By.Name("my-text"));
            var submitButton = driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button"));
            
            textBox.SendKeys("Selenium");
            submitButton.Click();
            
            var message = driver.FindElement(By.Id("message"));
            var value = message.Text;
            Assert.AreEqual("Received!", value);
            
            driver.Quit();
        }
    }
}
# frozen_string_literal: true
require 'spec_helper'
require 'selenium-webdriver'


RSpec.describe 'Using Selenium' do
  before do
    @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
  end

  it 'uses eight components' do
    @driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html')

    title = @driver.title
    expect(title).to eq('Web form')

    @driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 500

    text_box = @driver.find_element(name: 'my-text')
    submit_button = @driver.find_element(tag_name: 'button')

    text_box.send_keys('Selenium')
    submit_button.click

    message = @driver.find_element(id: 'message')
    value = message.text
    expect(value).to eq('Received!')
  end
end
const {By, Builder} = require('selenium-webdriver');
const assert = require("assert");

  describe('First script', function () {
    let driver;
    
    before(async function () {
      driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
    });
    
    it('First Selenium script with mocha', async function () {
      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html');
      
      let title = await driver.getTitle();
      assert.equal("Web form", title);
      
      await driver.manage().setTimeouts({implicit: 500});
      
      let textBox = await driver.findElement(By.name('my-text'));
      let submitButton = await driver.findElement(By.css('button'));
      
      await textBox.sendKeys('Selenium');
      await submitButton.click();
      
      let message = await driver.findElement(By.id('message'));
      let value = await message.getText();
      assert.equal("Received!", value);
    });
  
    after(async () => await driver.quit());
  });

Next Steps

Take what you’ve learned and build out your Selenium code!

As you find more functionality that you need, read up on the rest of our WebDriver documentation.

2 - ドライバーセッション

セッションの開始と停止は、ブラウザーを開いたり閉じたりするためのものです。

セッションの作成

新しいセッションの作成は、W3C コマンド New session に対応しています。

セッションは、新しいDriverクラスオブジェクトを初期化することによって自動的に作成されます。

各言語では、次のいずれかのクラス (または同等のもの) の引数を使用してセッションを作成することができます。

ローカルドライバー

ローカルドライバーを起動するための主な一意の引数には、ローカルコンピューターで必要なドライバーサービスを起動するための情報が含まれます。

  • Serviceオブジェクトはローカルドライバーにのみ適用され、ブラウザーのドライバーに関する情報を提供します。

リモートドライバー

リモートドライバーを起動するための主な一意の引数には、コードを実行する場所に関する情報を含みます。 詳細は、リモートドライバーをご覧ください。

セッションの終了

セッションの終了に対するW3Cコマンドは、セッションの削除です。

重要: quit メソッドは close メソッドとは異なり、 セッションを終了するには常に quit を使用することをお勧めします。

2.1 - ブラウザーオプション

これらのCapabilityはすべてのブラウザで共通です。

Selenium 3 では、Capabilitiesは Desired Capabilities クラスを使用してセッションで定義していました。 Selenium 4 以降、ブラウザ オプション クラスを使用する必要があります。 リモート ドライバー セッションの場合、使用するブラウザーを決めるため、ブラウザーオプションインスタンスが必要です。

これらのオプションは、Capabilities の w3c仕様で説明しています。

各ブラウザには、w3c仕様で定義しているものに加えて定義可能な カスタム オプション があります。

browserName

Browser name is set by default when using an Options class instance.

browserVersion

This capability is optional, this is used to set the available browser version at remote end. In recent versions of Selenium, if the version is not found on the system, it will be automatically downloaded by Selenium Manager

pageLoadStrategy

3種類のページ読み込み戦略を利用できます。

ページ読み込み戦略は、次の表で説明しています。

戦略準備完了状態注釈
normalcompleteデフォルトで使用され、すべてのリソースをダウンロードするのを待ちます
eagerinteractiveDOM アクセスの準備は整っていますが、画像などの他のリソースはまだロード中の可能性があります
noneAnyWebDriver をまったくブロックしません

ドキュメントの document.readyState プロパティは、現在のドキュメントの読み込み状態を示します。

URL 経由で新しいページに移動する場合、デフォルトでは、WebDriver は、ドキュメントの準備完了状態が完了するまで、 ナビゲーション メソッド (driver.navigate().get() など) の完了を保留します。 これは必ずしもページの読み込みが完了したことを意味するわけではありません。 特に、Ready State が完了した後に JavaScript を使用してコンテンツを動的に読み込むシングル ページ アプリケーションのようなサイトの場合はそうです。 また、この動作は、要素のクリックまたはフォームの送信の結果であるナビゲーションには適用されないことに注意してください。

自動化にとって重要ではないアセット (画像、css、js など) をダウンロードした結果、ページの読み込みに時間がかかる場合は、 デフォルトのパラメーターである normaleager または none に変更して、セッションの読み込みを高速化できます。 この値はセッション全体に適用されるため、 待機戦略 が不安定さを最小限に抑えるのに十分であることを確認してください。

normal (デフォルト)

WebDriver は load イベント検知するまで待機します。

    ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
    chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.NORMAL);
    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
    options.page_load_strategy = 'normal'
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace pageLoadStrategy {
  class pageLoadStrategy {
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      var chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
      chromeOptions.PageLoadStrategy = PageLoadStrategy.Normal;
      IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
      try {
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
      } finally {
        driver.Quit();
      }
    }
  }
}
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.page_load_strategy = :normal
    it('Navigate using normal page loading strategy', async function () {
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setPageLoadStrategy('normal'))
        .build();

      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/blank.html');
import org.openqa.selenium.PageLoadStrategy
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions

fun main() {
  val chromeOptions = ChromeOptions()
  chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.NORMAL)
  val driver = ChromeDriver(chromeOptions)
  try {
    driver.get("https://www.google.com")
  }
  finally {
    driver.quit()
  }
}

eager

WebDriver は、DOMContentLoaded イベントを検知するまで待機します。

    ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
    chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.EAGER);
    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
    options.page_load_strategy = 'eager'
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace pageLoadStrategy {
  class pageLoadStrategy {
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      var chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
      chromeOptions.PageLoadStrategy = PageLoadStrategy.Eager;
      IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
      try {
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
      } finally {
        driver.Quit();
      }
    }
  }
}
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.page_load_strategy = :eager
    it('Navigate using eager page loading strategy', async function () {
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setPageLoadStrategy('eager'))
        .build();

      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/blank.html');
import org.openqa.selenium.PageLoadStrategy
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions

fun main() {
  val chromeOptions = ChromeOptions()
  chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.EAGER)
  val driver = ChromeDriver(chromeOptions)
  try {
    driver.get("https://www.google.com")
  }
  finally {
    driver.quit()
  }
}

none

WebDriver は、最初のページがダウンロードされるまで待機します。

    ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
    chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.NONE);
    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
    options.page_load_strategy = 'none'
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace pageLoadStrategy {
  class pageLoadStrategy {
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      var chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
      chromeOptions.PageLoadStrategy = PageLoadStrategy.None;
      IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);
      try {
        driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://example.com");
      } finally {
        driver.Quit();
      }
    }
  }
}
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.page_load_strategy = :none
    it('Navigate using none page loading strategy', async function () {
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setPageLoadStrategy('none'))
        .build();

      await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/blank.html');
import org.openqa.selenium.PageLoadStrategy
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions

fun main() {
  val chromeOptions = ChromeOptions()
  chromeOptions.setPageLoadStrategy(PageLoadStrategy.NONE)
  val driver = ChromeDriver(chromeOptions)
  try {
    driver.get("https://www.google.com")
  }
  finally {
    driver.quit()
  }
}

platformName

これにより、リモートエンドのオペレーティングシステムが識別され、 platformName を取得するとOS名が返されます。

クラウドベースのプロバイダーでは、 platformName を設定すると、リモートエンドのOSが設定されます。

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.firefox
      options.platform_name = 'Windows 10'

acceptInsecureCerts

この機能は、セッション中のナビゲーション中に、期限切れ(または)無効な TLS証明書 が使用されているかどうかを確認します。

機能が false に設定されている場合、ナビゲーションでドメイン証明書の問題が発生すると、 insecure certificate error が返されます。 true に設定すると、無効な証明書はブラウザーによって信頼されます。

すべての自己署名証明書は、デフォルトでこの機能によって信頼されます。 一度設定すると、 acceptInsecureCerts Capabilityはセッション全体に影響します。

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.accept_insecure_certs = true
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setAcceptInsecureCerts(true))
        .build();

timeouts

WebDriverの セッション には特定の セッションタイムアウト 間隔が設定されており、 その間、ユーザーはスクリプトの実行またはブラウザーからの情報の取得の動作を制御できます。

各セッションタイムアウトは、以下で説明するように、異なる タイムアウト の組み合わせで構成されます。

Script Timeout:

現在のブラウジングコンテキストで実行中のスクリプトをいつ中断するかを指定します。 新しいセッションがWebDriverによって作成されると、デフォルトのタイムアウト 30,000 が課されます。

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.timeouts = {script: 40_000}

Page Load Timeout:

現在のブラウジングコンテキストでWebページをロードする必要がある時間間隔を指定します。 新しいセッションがWebDriverによって作成されると、デフォルトのタイムアウト 300,000 が課されます。 ページの読み込みが指定/デフォルトの時間枠を制限する場合、スクリプトは TimeoutException によって停止されます。

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.timeouts = {page_load: 400_000}

Implicit Wait Timeout

これは、要素を検索するときに暗黙的な要素の検索戦略を待つ時間を指定します。 新しいセッションがWebDriverによって作成されると、デフォルトのタイムアウト 0 が課されます。

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.timeouts = {implicit: 1}

unhandledPromptBehavior

現在のセッションの ユーザープロンプトハンドラー の状態を指定します。 デフォルトでは、 dismiss and notify (却下して通知する) 状態 となります。

User Prompt Handler

これは、リモートエンドでユーザープロンプトが表示されたときに実行する必要があるアクションを定義します。 これは、 unhandledPromptBehavior Capabilityによって定義され、次の状態があります。

  • dismiss (却下)
  • accept (受入)
  • dismiss and notify (却下して通知)
  • accept and notify (受け入れて通知)
  • ignore (無視)
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.unhandled_prompt_behavior = :accept

setWindowRect

リモート エンドがすべての サイズ変更および再配置 コマンド をサポートするかどうかを示します。

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.firefox
      options.set_window_rect = true

strictFileInteractability

この新しいcapabilityは、厳密な相互作用チェックを input type = file 要素に適用する必要があるかどうかを示します。 厳密な相互作用チェックはデフォルトでオフになっているため、隠しファイルのアップロードコントロールで Element Send Keys を使用する場合の動作が変更されます。

      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.strict_file_interactability = true

proxy

プロキシサーバーは、クライアントとサーバー間の要求の仲介役として機能します。 簡単に言えば、トラフィックはプロキシサーバーを経由して、要求したアドレスに戻り、戻ってきます。

Seleniumを使用した自動化スクリプト用のプロキシサーバーは、

  • ネットワークトラフィックをキャプチャする
  • ウェブサイトによって行われた模擬バックエンドを呼び出す
  • 複雑なネットワークトポロジーまたは厳格な企業の制限/ポリシーの下で、必要なWebサイトにアクセスします。

企業環境でブラウザがURLへの接続に失敗した場合、環境にアクセスするにはプロキシが必要であることが原因であることが最も可能性が高いです。

Selenium WebDriverは設定をプロキシする方法を提供します。

Move Code

import org.openqa.selenium.Proxy;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions;

public class ProxyTest {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    Proxy proxy = new Proxy();
    proxy.setHttpProxy("<HOST:PORT>");
    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    options.setCapability("proxy", proxy);
    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
    driver.get("https://www.google.com/");
    driver.manage().window().maximize();
    driver.quit();
  }
}
from selenium import webdriver

PROXY = "<HOST:PORT>"
webdriver.DesiredCapabilities.FIREFOX['proxy'] = {
"httpProxy": PROXY,
"ftpProxy": PROXY,
"sslProxy": PROXY,
"proxyType": "MANUAL",

}

with webdriver.Firefox() as driver:
    driver.get("https://selenium.dev")
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

public class ProxyTest{
public static void Main() {
ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
Proxy proxy = new Proxy();
proxy.Kind = ProxyKind.Manual;
proxy.IsAutoDetect = false;
proxy.SslProxy = "<HOST:PORT>";
options.Proxy = proxy;
options.AddArgument("ignore-certificate-errors");
IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/");
}
}
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      options.proxy = Selenium::WebDriver::Proxy.new(http: 'myproxy.com:8080')
let webdriver = require('selenium-webdriver');
let chrome = require('selenium-webdriver/chrome');
let proxy = require('selenium-webdriver/proxy');
let opts = new chrome.Options();

(async function example() {
opts.setProxy(proxy.manual({http: '<HOST:PORT>'}));
let driver = new webdriver.Builder()
.forBrowser('chrome')
.setChromeOptions(opts)
.build();
try {
await driver.get("https://selenium.dev");
}
finally {
await driver.quit();
}
}());
import org.openqa.selenium.Proxy
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeOptions

class proxyTest {
fun main() {

        val proxy = Proxy()
        proxy.setHttpProxy("<HOST:PORT>")
        val options = ChromeOptions()
        options.setCapability("proxy", proxy)
        val driver: WebDriver = ChromeDriver(options)
        driver["https://www.google.com/"]
        driver.manage().window().maximize()
        driver.quit()
    }
}

2.2 - HTTP Client Configuration

These allow you to set various parameters for the HTTP library

    client = Selenium::WebDriver::Remote::Http::Default.new(open_timeout: 30, read_timeout: 30)
    expect(client.open_timeout).to eq 30

2.3 - Driver Service Class

The Service classes are for managing the starting and stopping of drivers. They can not be used with a Remote WebDriver session.

Service classes allow you to specify information about the driver, like location and which port to use. They also let you specify what arguments get passed to the command line. Most of the useful arguments are related to logging.

Default Service instance

To start a driver with a default service instance:

    driver = new ChromeDriver(service);
  }

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService()
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(service=service)
            var service = ChromeDriverService.CreateDefaultService();
            driver = new ChromeDriver(service);
    service = Selenium::WebDriver::Service.chrome
    @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome, service: service

Driver location

Note: If you are using Selenium 4.6 or greater, you shouldn’t need to set a driver location. If you can not update Selenium or have an advanced use case here is how to specify the driver location:

        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().usingDriverExecutable(driverPath).build();

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(executable_path=chromedriver_bin)

Selenium v4.9

            var service = ChromeDriverService.CreateDefaultService(GetDriverLocation(options));

Selenium v4.8

    service.executable_path = driver_path

Driver port

If you want the driver to run on a specific port, you may specify it as follows:

Logging

Logging functionality varies between browsers. Most browsers allow you to specify location and level of logs. Take a look at the respective browser page:

2.4 - Remote WebDriver

Selenium lets you automate browsers on remote computers if there is a Selenium Grid running on them. The computer that executes the code is referred to as the client computer, and the computer with the browser and driver is referred to as the remote computer or sometimes as an end-node. To direct Selenium tests to the remote computer, you need to use a Remote WebDriver class and pass the URL including the port of the grid on that machine. Please see the grid documentation for all the various ways the grid can be configured.

Basic Example

The driver needs to know where to send commands to and which browser to start on the Remote computer. So an address and an options instance are both required.

    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    driver = new RemoteWebDriver(gridUrl, options);
    options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Remote(command_executor=server, options=options)
            var options = new ChromeOptions();
            driver = new RemoteWebDriver(GridUrl, options);
    options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :remote, url: grid_url, options: options

Uploads

Uploading a file is more complicated for Remote WebDriver sessions because the file you want to upload is likely on the computer executing the code, but the driver on the remote computer is looking for the provided path on its local file system. The solution is to use a Local File Detector. When one is set, Selenium will bundle the file, and send it to the remote machine, so the driver can see the reference to it. Some bindings include a basic local file detector by default, and all of them allow for a custom file detector.

Java does not include a Local File Detector by default, so you must always add one to do uploads.
    ((RemoteWebDriver) driver).setFileDetector(new LocalFileDetector());
    WebElement fileInput = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("input[type=file]"));
    fileInput.sendKeys(uploadFile.getAbsolutePath());
    driver.findElement(By.id("file-submit")).click();

Python adds a local file detector to remote webdriver instances by default, but you can also create your own class.

    driver.file_detector = LocalFileDetector()
    file_input = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR, "input[type='file']")
    file_input.send_keys(upload_file)
    driver.find_element(By.ID, "file-submit").click()
.NET adds a local file detector to remote webdriver instances by default, but you can also create your own class.
            ((RemoteWebDriver)driver).FileDetector = new LocalFileDetector();
            IWebElement fileInput = driver.FindElement(By.CssSelector("input[type=file]"));
            fileInput.SendKeys(uploadFile);
            driver.FindElement(By.Id("file-submit")).Click();
Ruby adds a local file detector to remote webdriver instances by default, but you can also create your own lambda:
    driver.file_detector = ->((filename, *)) { filename.include?('selenium') && filename }
    file_input = driver.find_element(css: 'input[type=file]')
    file_input.send_keys(upload_file)
    driver.find_element(id: 'file-submit').click

Downloads

Chrome, Edge and Firefox each allow you to set the location of the download directory. When you do this on a remote computer, though, the location is on the remote computer’s local file system. Selenium allows you to enable downloads to get these files onto the client computer.

Enable Downloads in the Grid

Regardless of the client, when starting the grid in node or standalone mode, you must add the flag:

--enable-managed-downloads true

Enable Downloads in the Client

The grid uses the se:downloadsEnabled capability to toggle whether to be responsible for managing the browser location. Each of the bindings have a method in the options class to set this.

    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    options.setEnableDownloads(true);
    driver = new RemoteWebDriver(gridUrl, options);
    options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    options.enable_downloads = True
    driver = webdriver.Remote(command_executor=server, options=options)
            ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions
            {
                EnableDownloads = true
            };

            driver = new RemoteWebDriver(GridUrl, options);
    options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome(enable_downloads: true)
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :remote, url: grid_url, options: options

List Downloadable Files

Be aware that Selenium is not waiting for files to finish downloading, so the list is an immediate snapshot of what file names are currently in the directory for the given session.

    List<String> files = ((HasDownloads) driver).getDownloadableFiles();
    files = driver.get_downloadable_files()
            IReadOnlyList<string> names = ((RemoteWebDriver)driver).GetDownloadableFiles();
    files = driver.downloadable_files

Download a File

Selenium looks for the name of the provided file in the list and downloads it to the provided target directory.

    ((HasDownloads) driver).downloadFile(downloadableFile, targetDirectory);
    driver.download_file(downloadable_file, target_directory)
    driver.download_file(downloadable_file, target_directory)

Delete Downloaded Files

By default, the download directory is deleted at the end of the applicable session, but you can also delete all files during the session.

    ((HasDownloads) driver).deleteDownloadableFiles();
    driver.delete_downloadable_files()
            ((RemoteWebDriver)driver).DeleteDownloadableFiles();
    driver.delete_downloadable_files

Browser specific functionalities

Each browser has implemented special functionality that is available only to that browser. Each of the Selenium bindings has implemented a different way to use those features in a Remote Session

Java requires you to use the Augmenter class, which allows it to automatically pull in implementations for all interfaces that match the capabilities used with the RemoteWebDriver

    driver = new Augmenter().augment(driver);

Of interest, using the RemoteWebDriverBuilder automatically augments the driver, so it is a great way to get all the functionality by default:

        RemoteWebDriver.builder()
            .address(gridUrl)
            .oneOf(new ChromeOptions())
            .setCapability("ext:options", Map.of("key", "value"))
            .config(ClientConfig.defaultConfig())
            .build();
.NET uses a custom command executor for executing commands that are valid for the given browser in the remote driver.
            var customCommandDriver = driver as ICustomDriverCommandExecutor;
            customCommandDriver.RegisterCustomDriverCommands(FirefoxDriver.CustomCommandDefinitions);

            var screenshotResponse = customCommandDriver
                .ExecuteCustomDriverCommand(FirefoxDriver.GetFullPageScreenshotCommand, null);
Ruby uses mixins to add applicable browser specific methods to the Remote WebDriver session; the methods should always just work for you.

クライアントのリクエストをトレースする

この機能は、Java クライアント バインディング (ベータ版以降) でのみ利用できます。 Remote WebDriver クライアントは Selenium Grid サーバーにリクエストを送信し、 Selenium Grid サーバーはリクエストを WebDriver に渡します。 HTTP リクエストをエンド ツー エンドでトレースするには、サーバー側とクライアント側でトレースを有効にする必要があります。 両端には、視覚化フレームワークを指すトレース エクスポーターのセットアップが必要です。 デフォルトでは、トレースはクライアントとサーバーの両方で有効になっています。 視覚化フレームワークの Jaeger UI と Selenium Grid 4 を設定するには、目的のバージョンの トレースのセットアップ を参照してください。

クライアント側のセットアップについては、以下の手順に従ってください。

必要な依存関係を追加する

トレーシング エクスポーターの外部ライブラリのインストールは、Maven を使って実行できます。 プロジェクト pom.xml に opentelemetry-exporter-jaeger および grpc-netty の依存関係を追加します。

  <dependency>
      <groupId>io.opentelemetry</groupId>
      <artifactId>opentelemetry-exporter-jaeger</artifactId>
      <version>1.0.0</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.grpc</groupId>
      <artifactId>grpc-netty</artifactId>
      <version>1.35.0</version>
    </dependency>

クライアントの実行中に必要なシステムプロパティを追加/渡す

System.setProperty("otel.traces.exporter", "jaeger");
System.setProperty("otel.exporter.jaeger.endpoint", "http://localhost:14250");
System.setProperty("otel.resource.attributes", "service.name=selenium-java-client");

ImmutableCapabilities capabilities = new ImmutableCapabilities("browserName", "chrome");

WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("http://www.example.com"), capabilities);

driver.get("http://www.google.com");

driver.quit();

  

ご希望のSeleniumのバージョンに必要な外部依存関係のバージョンの詳細については、 トレースのセットアップ を参照してください。

詳細については、下記URLを参照してください。

3 - 対応ブラウザ

各ブラウザには、カスタムCapabilityと固有の機能があります。

3.1 - Chrome固有の機能

これらは、Google Chrome ブラウザに固有のCapabilityです。

デフォルトでは、Selenium 4 は Chrome v75 以降と互換性があります。 Chromeブラウザのバージョンと chromedriverのバージョンは、メジャーバージョンと一致する必要があることに注意してください。

Options

全てのブラウザに共通のCapabilityについては、オプション ページで説明しています。

Chrome に固有のCapabilityは、Google のCapabilities & ChromeOptionsページにあります。

基本的な定義済みオプションを使用してChromeセッションを開始すると、次のようになります。

    ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();
    driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
            var options = new ChromeOptions();
            driver = new ChromeDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.chrome
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome, options: options
      const Options = new Chrome.Options();
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(Options)
        .build();

さまざまなCapabilityを備えた一般的な使用例をいくつか示します。

引数

The args parameter is for a list of command line switches to be used when starting the browser. There are two excellent resources for investigating these arguments:

Commonly used args include --start-maximized, --headless=new and --user-data-dir=...

Add an argument to options:

    options.addArguments("--start-maximized");
    options.add_argument("--start-maximized")
            options.AddArgument("--start-maximized");
      options.args << '--start-maximized'
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.addArguments('--headless=new'))
        .build();

指定したロケーションでブラウザを起動する

binaryパラメーターは、使用するブラウザの別のロケーションのパスを取ります。 このパラメーターを使用すると、chromedriver を使用して、さまざまな Chromium ベースのブラウザを駆動できます。

オプションにブラウザのロケーションを追加します。

    options.setBinary(getChromeLocation());
    options.binary_location = chrome_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetChromeLocation();
      options.binary = chrome_location
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.setChromeBinaryPath(`Path to chrome binary`))
        .build();

拡張機能を追加する

extensions パラメーターはcrxファイルを受け入れます

The extensions parameter accepts crx files. As for unpacked directories, please use the load-extension argument instead, as mentioned in this post.

オプションに拡張機能を追加します。

    options.addExtensions(extensionFilePath);
    options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
            options.AddExtension(extensionFilePath);
      options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
      const options = new Chrome.Options();
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.addExtensions(['./test/resources/extensions/webextensions-selenium-example.crx']))
        .build();

ブラウザを開いたままにする

detach パラメータをtrueに設定すると、ドライバープロセスが終了した後もブラウザを開いたままにできます。

Note: This is already the default behavior in Java.

    options.add_experimental_option("detach", True)

Note: This is already the default behavior in .NET.

      options.detach = true
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.detachDriver(true))
        .build();

引数を除外する

Chrome はさまざまな引数を追加します。 これらの引数を追加したくない場合は、それらを excludeSwitches に渡します。 一般的な例は、ポップアップブロッカーをオンに設定することです。

A full list of default arguments can be parsed from the Chromium Source Code

オプションに除外された引数を設定します。

    options.setExperimentalOption("excludeSwitches", List.of("disable-popup-blocking"));
    options.add_experimental_option('excludeSwitches', ['disable-popup-blocking'])
            options.AddExcludedArgument("disable-popup-blocking");
      options.exclude_switches << 'disable-popup-blocking'
      let driver = await env
        .builder()
        .setChromeOptions(options.excludeSwitches('enable-automation'))
        .build();

Service

Examples for creating a default Service object, and for setting driver location and port can be found on the Driver Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(log_output=log_path)
            service.LogPath = GetLogLocation();

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

$stdout and $stderr are both valid values

Selenium v4.10

      service.log = $stdout

Log level

There are 6 available log levels: ALL, DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, SEVERE, and OFF. Note that --verbose is equivalent to --log-level=ALL and --silent is equivalent to --log-level=OFF, so this example is just setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withLogLevel(ChromiumDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of ChromiumDriverLogLevel enum

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--log-level=DEBUG'], log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-level=DEBUG'

Log file features

There are 2 features that are only available when logging to a file:

  • append log
  • readable timestamps

To use them, you need to also explicitly specify the log path and log level. The log output will be managed by the driver, not the process, so minor differences may be seen.

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withAppendLog(true).withReadableTimestamp(true).build();

Note: Java also allows toggling these features by System Property:
Property keys: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_APPEND_LOG_PROPERTY and ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_READABLE_TIMESTAMP
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--append-log', '--readable-timestamp'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--append-log'
      service.args << '--readable-timestamp'

Disabling build check

Chromedriver and Chrome browser versions should match, and if they don’t the driver will error. If you disable the build check, you can force the driver to be used with any version of Chrome. Note that this is an unsupported feature, and bugs will not be investigated.

Selenium v4.8

    ChromeDriverService service =
        new ChromeDriverService.Builder().withBuildCheckDisabled(true).build();

Note: Java also allows disabling build checks by System Property:
Property key: ChromeDriverService.CHROME_DRIVER_DISABLE_BUILD_CHECK
Property value: "true" or "false"

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.ChromeService(service_args=['--disable-build-check'], log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)
            service.DisableBuildCheck = true;

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--disable-build-check'

Special Features

キャスティング

タブの共有など、Chrome Castデバイスを操作できます。

      sinks = @driver.cast_sinks
      unless sinks.empty?
        device_name = sinks.first['name']
        @driver.start_cast_tab_mirroring(device_name)
        expect { @driver.stop_casting(device_name) }.not_to raise_exception
      end

ネットワークの状態

さまざまなネットワークの状態をシミュレートできます。

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

      @driver.network_conditions = {offline: false, latency: 100, throughput: 200}

ログ

パーミッション

      @driver.add_permission('camera', 'denied')
      @driver.add_permissions('clipboard-read' => 'denied', 'clipboard-write' => 'prompt')

デベロッパー ツール

Chromeデベロッパーツールの使用に関する詳細については、Chromeデベロッパー ツールセクションを参照してください。

3.2 - Edge固有の機能

これらは、Microsoft Edgeブラウザに固有のCapabilityです。

Microsoft EdgeはChromiumで実装されており、サポートされている最も古いバージョンはv79です。 Chromeと同様に、edgedriverのメジャー バージョン番号は、Edgeブラウザのメジャーバージョンと一致する必要があります。

Chromeページ にあるすべての機能とオプションは、Edgeでも機能します。

オプション

Capabilities common to all browsers are described on the Options page.

Capabilities unique to Chromium are documented at Google’s page for Capabilities & ChromeOptions

基本的な定義済みオプションを使用して Edgeセッションを開始すると、次のようになります。

    EdgeOptions options = new EdgeOptions();
    driver = new EdgeDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.EdgeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Edge(options=options)
            var options = new EdgeOptions();
            driver = new EdgeDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.edge
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :edge, options: options
      driver = await env.builder()
        .setEdgeOptions(options)
        .build();
    });

引数

The args parameter is for a list of command line switches to be used when starting the browser. There are two excellent resources for investigating these arguments:

一般的に使用される引数には、--start-maximized および --headless=new が含まれます。 and --user-data-dir=...

オプションに引数を追加します。

    options.addArguments("--start-maximized");
    options.add_argument("--start-maximized")
            options.AddArgument("--start-maximized");
      options.args << '--start-maximized'
        .setEdgeOptions(options.addArguments('--headless=new'))

Start browser in a specified location

The binary parameter takes the path of an alternate location of browser to use. With this parameter you can use chromedriver to drive various Chromium based browsers.

Add a browser location to options:

    options.setBinary(getEdgeLocation());
    options.binary_location = edge_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetEdgeLocation();
      options.binary = edge_location

Add extensions

The extensions parameter accepts crx files. As for unpacked directories, please use the load-extension argument instead, as mentioned in this post.

Add an extension to options:

    options.addExtensions(extensionFilePath);
    options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
            options.AddExtension(extensionFilePath);
      options.add_extension(extension_file_path)
        .setEdgeOptions(options.addExtensions(['./test/resources/extensions/webextensions-selenium-example.crx']))

Keeping browser open

Setting the detach parameter to true will keep the browser open after the process has ended, so long as the quit command is not sent to the driver.

Note: This is already the default behavior in Java.

    options.add_experimental_option("detach", True)

Note: This is already the default behavior in .NET.

      options.detach = true
        .setEdgeOptions(options.detachDriver(true))

Excluding arguments

MSEdgedriver has several default arguments it uses to start the browser. If you do not want those arguments added, pass them into excludeSwitches. A common example is to turn the popup blocker back on. A full list of default arguments can be parsed from the Chromium Source Code

Set excluded arguments on options:

    options.setExperimentalOption("excludeSwitches", List.of("disable-popup-blocking"));
    options.add_experimental_option('excludeSwitches', ['disable-popup-blocking'])
            options.AddExcludedArgument("disable-popup-blocking");
      options.exclude_switches << 'disable-popup-blocking'
    });
  });
}, { browsers: [Browser.EDGE]});

Service

Examples for creating a default Service object, and for setting driver location and port can be found on the Driver Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

Selenium v4.10

    EdgeDriverService service = new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(log_output=log_path)
            service.LogPath = GetLogLocation();

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

    EdgeDriverService service = new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

$stdout and $stderr are both valid values

Selenium v4.10

      service.log = $stdout

Log level

There are 6 available log levels: ALL, DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, SEVERE, and OFF. Note that --verbose is equivalent to --log-level=ALL and --silent is equivalent to --log-level=OFF, so this example is just setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withLoglevel(ChromiumDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of ChromiumDriverLogLevel enum

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--log-level=DEBUG'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-level=DEBUG'

Log file features

There are 2 features that are only available when logging to a file:

  • append log
  • readable timestamps

To use them, you need to also explicitly specify the log path and log level. The log output will be managed by the driver, not the process, so minor differences may be seen.

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withAppendLog(true).withReadableTimestamp(true).build();

Note: Java also allows toggling these features by System Property:
Property keys: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_APPEND_LOG_PROPERTY and EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_READABLE_TIMESTAMP
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--append-log', '--readable-timestamp'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--append-log'
      service.args << '--readable-timestamp'

Disabling build check

Edge browser and msedgedriver versions should match, and if they don’t the driver will error. If you disable the build check, you can force the driver to be used with any version of Edge. Note that this is an unsupported feature, and bugs will not be investigated.

Selenium v4.8

    EdgeDriverService service =
        new EdgeDriverService.Builder().withBuildCheckDisabled(true).build();

Note: Java also allows disabling build checks by System Property:
Property key: EdgeDriverService.EDGE_DRIVER_DISABLE_BUILD_CHECK
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.EdgeService(service_args=['--disable-build-check'], log_output=log_path)
            service.DisableBuildCheck = true;

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--disable-build-check'

Internet Explorer Compatibility モード

Microsoft Edge は、Internet Explorer ドライバークラスを Microsoft Edgeと組み合わせて使用する “Internet Explorer 互換モード"で動かすことができます。 詳細については、Internet Explorerページを参照してください。

Special Features

Some browsers have implemented additional features that are unique to them.

Casting

You can drive Chrome Cast devices with Edge, including sharing tabs

      sinks = @driver.cast_sinks
      unless sinks.empty?
        device_name = sinks.first['name']
        @driver.start_cast_tab_mirroring(device_name)
        expect { @driver.stop_casting(device_name) }.not_to raise_exception

Network conditions

You can simulate various network conditions.

      @driver.network_conditions = {offline: false, latency: 100, throughput: 200}

Logs

Permissions

      @driver.add_permission('camera', 'denied')
      @driver.add_permissions('clipboard-read' => 'denied', 'clipboard-write' => 'prompt')

DevTools

See the Chrome DevTools section for more information about using DevTools in Edge

3.3 - Firefox 固有のCapability

Mozilla Firefox ブラウザーに固有のCapabilityです。

Selenium 4 には Firefox 78 以降が必要です。 常に最新バージョンの geckodriver を使用することをお勧めします。

オプション

全ブラウザに共通のCapabilityについては、オプションページで説明しています。

Firefox に固有のCapabilityは、Mozilla のページの firefoxOptions にあります。

基本的な定義済みのオプションを使用して Firefox セッションを開始すると、以下のようになります。

    FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
    driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.FirefoxOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(options=options)
            var options = new FirefoxOptions();
            driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.firefox
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox, options: options
      let options = new firefox.Options();
      driver = await env.builder()
        .setFirefoxOptions(options)
        .build();

さまざまなCapabilityを備えた一般的な使用例をいくつか示します。

引数

args パラメータは、ブラウザの起動時に使用するコマンドラインスイッチのリストです。 一般的に使用される引数には、 -headless"-profile""/path/to/profile" が含まれます。

オプションに引数を追加します。

    options.addArguments("-headless");
    options.add_argument("-headless")
            options.AddArgument("-headless");
      options.args << '-headless'
    let driver = await env.builder()
      .setFirefoxOptions(options.addArguments('--headless'))
      .build();

指定したロケーションでブラウザを起動する

binary パラメーターは、使用するブラウザーの別のロケーションのパスを取ります。 たとえば、このパラメーターを使用すると、geckodriver を使用して、製品版とFirefox Nightlyの両方がコンピューターに存在する場合、 製品版の代わりに Firefox Nightly を駆動できます 。

オプションにブラウザーのロケーションを追加します。

    options.setBinary(getFirefoxLocation());
    options.binary_location = firefox_bin
            options.BinaryLocation = GetFirefoxLocation();
      options.binary = firefox_location

プロファイル

Firefoxプロファイルを操作するにはいくつかの方法があります。

FirefoxProfile profile = new FirefoxProfile();
FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
options.setProfile(profile);
driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.options import Options
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile import FirefoxProfile
options=Options()
firefox_profile = FirefoxProfile()
firefox_profile.set_preference("javascript.enabled", False)
options.profile = firefox_profile
  
var options = new FirefoxOptions();
var profile = new FirefoxProfile();
options.Profile = profile;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
profile = Selenium::WebDriver::Firefox::Profile.new
profile['browser.download.dir'] = "/tmp/webdriver-downloads"
options = Selenium::WebDriver::Firefox::Options.new(profile: profile)
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox, options: options
  
const { Builder } = require("selenium-webdriver");
const firefox = require('selenium-webdriver/firefox');

const options = new firefox.Options();
let profile = '/path to custom profile';
options.setProfile(profile);
const driver = new Builder()
    .forBrowser('firefox')
    .setFirefoxOptions(options)
    .build();
  
val options = FirefoxOptions()
options.profile = FirefoxProfile()
driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging various issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogFile(logLocation).build();

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=log_path, service_args=['--log', 'debug'])

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogOutput(System.out).build();

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Log level

There are 7 available log levels: fatal, error, warn, info, config, debug, trace. If logging is specified the level defaults to info.

Note that -v is equivalent to -log debug and -vv is equivalent to log trace, so this examples is just for setting the log level generically:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withLogLevel(FirefoxDriverLogLevel.DEBUG).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_LEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of FirefoxDriverLogLevel enum

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(log_output=log_path, service_args=['--log', 'debug'])

Selenium v4.10

      service.args += %w[--log debug]

Truncated Logs

The driver logs everything that gets sent to it, including string representations of large binaries, so Firefox truncates lines by default. To turn off truncation:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withTruncatedLogs(false).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_LOG_NO_TRUNCATE
Property value: "true" or "false"

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(service_args=['--log-no-truncate', '--log', 'debug'], log_output=log_path)

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '--log-no-truncate'

Profile Root

The default directory for profiles is the system temporary directory. If you do not have access to that directory, or want profiles to be created some place specific, you can change the profile root directory:

Selenium v4.10

    FirefoxDriverService service =
        new GeckoDriverService.Builder().withProfileRoot(profileDirectory).build();

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: GeckoDriverService.GECKO_DRIVER_PROFILE_ROOT
Property value: String representing path to profile root directory

    service = webdriver.FirefoxService(service_args=['--profile-root', temp_dir])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args += ['--profile-root', root_directory]

Special Features

アドオン

Chromeとは異なり、Firefoxの拡張機能はCapabilityの一部として追加されるのではなく、ドライバーの起動後に作成されます。

Unlike Chrome, Firefox extensions are not added as part of capabilities as mentioned in this issue, they are created after starting the driver.

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

インストール

Mozilla Add-Onsページ から取得する署名付きxpiファイル

    driver.installExtension(xpiPath);
    driver.install_addon(addon_path_xpi)
            driver.InstallAddOnFromFile(Path.GetFullPath(extensionFilePath));
      driver.install_addon(extension_file_path)
    const xpiPath = path.resolve('./test/resources/extensions/selenium-example.xpi')
    let driver = await env.builder().build();
    let id = await driver.installAddon(xpiPath);

アンインストール

アドオンをアンインストールするには、そのIDを知る必要があります。 IDはアドオンインストール時の戻り値から取得できます。

    driver.uninstallExtension(id);
    driver.uninstall_addon(id)

Selenium v4.5

            driver.UninstallAddOn(extensionId);
      driver.uninstall_addon(extension_id)
    await driver.uninstallAddon(id);

署名なしのインストール

未完成または未公開の拡張機能を使用する場合、署名されていない可能性があります。 そのため、“一時的なもの” としてのみインストールできます。 これは、zipファイルまたはディレクトリを渡すことで実行できます。ディレクトリの例を次に示します。

    driver.installExtension(path, true);
    driver.install_addon(addon_path_dir, temporary=True)

Selenium v4.5

            driver.InstallAddOnFromDirectory(Path.GetFullPath(extensionDirPath), true);

Selenium v4.5

      driver.install_addon(extension_dir_path, true)
    const xpiPath = path.resolve('./test/resources/extensions/selenium-example')
    let driver = await env.builder().build();
    let id = await driver.installAddon(xpiPath, true);

ページ全体のスクリーンショット

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

コンテキスト

The following examples are for local webdrivers. For remote webdrivers, please refer to the Remote WebDriver page.

3.4 - IE specific functionality

These are capabilities and features specific to Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers.

As of June 2022, Selenium officially no longer supports standalone Internet Explorer. The Internet Explorer driver still supports running Microsoft Edge in “IE Compatibility Mode.”

Special considerations

The IE Driver is the only driver maintained by the Selenium Project directly. While binaries for both the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Internet Explorer are available, there are some known limitations with the 64-bit driver. As such it is recommended to use the 32-bit driver.

Additional information about using Internet Explorer can be found on the IE Driver Server page

Options

Starting a Microsoft Edge browser in Internet Explorer Compatibility mode with basic defined options looks like this:

        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.attachToEdgeChrome();
        options.withEdgeExecutablePath(getEdgeLocation());
        driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.IeOptions()
    options.attach_to_edge_chrome = True
    options.edge_executable_path = edge_bin
    driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)
            var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
            options.AttachToEdgeChrome = true;
            options.EdgeExecutablePath = GetEdgeLocation();
            _driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.ie
      options.attach_to_edge_chrome = true
      options.edge_executable_path = edge_location
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :ie, options: options

As of Internet Explorer Driver v4.5.0:

  • If IE is not present on the system (default in Windows 11), you do not need to use the two parameters above. IE Driver will use Edge and will automatically locate it.
  • If IE and Edge are both present on the system, you only need to set attaching to Edge, IE Driver will automatically locate Edge on your system.

So, if IE is not on the system, you only need:

        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.IeOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)
            var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
            _driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.ie
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :ie, options: options
let driver = await new Builder()
.forBrowser('internet explorer')
.setIEOptions(options)
.build();
<p><a href=/documentation/about/contributing/#moving-examples>
<span class="selenium-badge-code" data-bs-toggle="tooltip" data-bs-placement="right"
      title="One or more of these examples need to be implemented in the examples directory; click for details in the contribution guide">Move Code</span></a></p>


val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)

Here are a few common use cases with different capabilities:

fileUploadDialogTimeout

環境によっては、ファイルアップロードダイアログを開くときにInternet Explorerがタイムアウトする場合があります。 IEDriverのデフォルトのタイムアウトは1000ミリ秒ですが、fileUploadDialogTimeout capabilityを使用してタイムアウトを増やすことができます。

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.waitForUploadDialogUpTo(Duration.ofSeconds(2));
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.file_upload_dialog_timeout = 2000
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.FileUploadDialogTimeout = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(2000);
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.file_upload_dialog_timeout = 2000
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().fileUploadDialogTimeout(2000);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.waitForUploadDialogUpTo(Duration.ofSeconds(2))
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ensureCleanSession

この機能を true に設定すると、手動またはドライバーによって開始されたものを含め、 InternetExplorerの実行中のすべてのインスタンスのキャッシュ、ブラウザー履歴、およびCookieがクリアされます。 デフォルトでは、false に設定されています。

この機能を使用すると、ドライバーがIEブラウザーを起動する前にキャッシュがクリアされるまで待機するため、 ブラウザーの起動中にパフォーマンスが低下します。

このケイパビリティは、ブール値をパラメーターとして受け入れます。

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.destructivelyEnsureCleanSession();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ensure_clean_session = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.EnsureCleanSession = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.ensure_clean_session = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().ensureCleanSession(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.destructivelyEnsureCleanSession()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ignoreZoomSetting

InternetExplorerドライバーは、ブラウザーのズームレベルが100%であることを想定しています。 それ以外の場合、ドライバーは例外をスローします。 このデフォルトの動作は、 ignoreZoomSettingtrue に設定することで無効にできます。

このケイパビリティは、ブール値をパラメーターとして受け入れます。

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.ignoreZoomSettings();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ignore_zoom_level = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.IgnoreZoomLevel = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.ignore_zoom_level = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().ignoreZoomSetting(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.ignoreZoomSettings()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

ignoreProtectedModeSettings

新しいIEセッションの起動中に 保護モード チェックをスキップするかどうか。

設定されておらず、 保護モード 設定がすべてのゾーンで同じでない場合、 ドライバーによって例外がスローされます。

ケイパビリティを true に設定すると、テストが不安定になったり、応答しなくなったり、 ブラウザがハングしたりする場合があります。 ただし、これはまだ2番目に良い選択であり、最初の選択は 常に 各ゾーンの保護モード設定を手動で実際に設定することです。 ユーザーがこのプロパティを使用している場合、「ベストエフォート」のみがサポートされます。

このケイパビリティは、ブール値をパラメーターとして受け入れます。

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.introduceFlakinessByIgnoringSecurityDomains();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.ignore_protected_mode_settings = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
var options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.IntroduceInstabilityByIgnoringProtectedModeSettings = true;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
  
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.ignore_protected_mode_settings = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options().introduceFlakinessByIgnoringProtectedModeSettings(true);
let driver = await Builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build(); 
  
val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
options.introduceFlakinessByIgnoringSecurityDomains()
val driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)
  

silent

true に設定すると、このケイパビリティはIEDriverServerの診断出力を抑制します。

このケイパビリティは、ブール値をパラメーターとして受け入れます。

InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.setCapability("silent", true);
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.set_capability("silent", True)
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
options.AddAdditionalInternetExplorerOption("silent", true);
IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
  
    
    
    
    
    <p><a href=/documentation/about/contributing/#creating-examples>
    <span class="selenium-badge-code" data-bs-toggle="tooltip" data-bs-placement="right"
          title="This code example is missing. Examples are added to the examples directory; click for details in the contribution guide">Add Example</span></a></p>
    

  
const {Builder,By, Capabilities} = require('selenium-webdriver');
let caps = Capabilities.ie();
caps.set('silent', true);

(async function example() {
    let driver = await new Builder()
        .forBrowser('internet explorer')
        .withCapabilities(caps)
        .build();
    try {
        await driver.get('http://www.google.com/ncr');
    }
    finally {
        await driver.quit();
    }
})();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.setCapability("silent", true)
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

IE Command-Line Options

Internet Explorerには、ブラウザーのトラブルシューティングと構成を可能にするいくつかのコマンドラインオプションが含まれています。

次に、サポートされているいくつかのコマンドラインオプションについて説明します。

  • -private : IEをプライベートブラウジングモードで起動するために使用されます。 これはIE 8以降のバージョンで機能します。

  • -k : Internet Explorerをキオスクモードで起動します。 ブラウザは、アドレスバー、ナビゲーションボタン、またはステータスバーを表示しない最大化されたウィンドウで開きます。

  • -extoff : アドオンなしモードでIEを起動します。 このオプションは、ブラウザーのアドオンに関する問題のトラブルシューティングに特に使用されます。 IE 7以降のバージョンで動作します。

注:コマンドライン引数が機能するためには、 forceCreateProcessApi を順番に有効にする必要があります。

import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions;

public class ieTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe();
        options.addCommandSwitches("-k");
        InternetExplorerDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
        try {
            driver.get("https://google.com/ncr");
            Capabilities caps = driver.getCapabilities();
            System.out.println(caps);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.add_argument('-private')
options.force_create_process_api = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
using System;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

namespace ieTest {
 class Program {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
   InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
   options.ForceCreateProcessApi = true;
   options.BrowserCommandLineArguments = "-k";
   IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
   driver.Url = "https://google.com/ncr";
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.force_create_process_api = true
options.add_argument('-k')
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)

begin
  driver.get 'https://google.com'
  puts(driver.capabilities.to_json)
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options();
options.addBrowserCommandSwitches('-k');
options.addBrowserCommandSwitches('-private');
options.forceCreateProcessApi(true);

driver = await env.builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe()
    options.addCommandSwitches("-k")
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps);
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}
  

forceCreateProcessApi

CreateProcess APIを使用してInternet Explorerを強制的に起動します。 デフォルト値はfalseです。

IE 8以降の場合、このオプションでは “TabProcGrowth” レジストリの値を0に設定する必要があります。

import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions;

public class ieTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
        options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe();
        InternetExplorerDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
        try {
            driver.get("https://google.com/ncr");
            Capabilities caps = driver.getCapabilities();
            System.out.println(caps);
        } finally {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }
}
  
from selenium import webdriver

options = webdriver.IeOptions()
options.force_create_process_api = True
driver = webdriver.Ie(options=options)

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

driver.quit()
  
using System;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.IE;

namespace ieTest {
 class Program {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
   InternetExplorerOptions options = new InternetExplorerOptions();
   options.ForceCreateProcessApi = true;
   IWebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(options);
   driver.Url = "https://google.com/ncr";
  }
 }
}
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'
options = Selenium::WebDriver::IE::Options.new
options.force_create_process_api = true
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for(:ie, options: options)

begin
  driver.get 'https://google.com'
  puts(driver.capabilities.to_json)
ensure
  driver.quit
end
  
const ie = require('selenium-webdriver/ie');
let options = new ie.Options();
options.forceCreateProcessApi(true);

driver = await env.builder()
          .setIeOptions(options)
          .build();
  
import org.openqa.selenium.Capabilities
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerOptions

fun main() {
    val options = InternetExplorerOptions()
    options.useCreateProcessApiToLaunchIe()
    val driver = InternetExplorerDriver(options)
    try {
        driver.get("https://google.com/ncr")
        val caps = driver.getCapabilities()
        println(caps)
    } finally {
        driver.quit()
    }
}

  

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Log output

Getting driver logs can be helpful for debugging various issues. The Service class lets you direct where the logs will go. Logging output is ignored unless the user directs it somewhere.

File output

To change the logging output to save to a specific file:

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogFile(getLogLocation())

Note: Java also allows setting file output by System Property:
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGFILE_PROPERTY
Property value: String representing path to log file

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=log_path, log_level='INFO')

Console output

To change the logging output to display in the console as STDOUT:

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogOutput(System.out)

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGFILE_PROPERTY
Property value: DriverService.LOG_STDOUT or DriverService.LOG_STDERR

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=subprocess.STDOUT)

Log Level

There are 6 available log levels: FATAL, ERROR, WARN, INFO, DEBUG, and TRACE If logging output is specified, the default level is FATAL

                .withLogLevel(InternetExplorerDriverLogLevel.WARN)

Note: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:
Property key: InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_LOGLEVEL_PROPERTY
Property value: String representation of InternetExplorerDriverLogLevel.DEBUG.toString() enum

    service = webdriver.IeService(log_output=log_path, log_level='WARN')

Selenium v4.10

      service.args << '-log-level=WARN'

Supporting Files Path

                .withExtractPath(getTempDirectory())
**Note**: Java also allows setting log level by System Property:\ Property key: `InternetExplorerDriverService.IE_DRIVER_EXTRACT_PATH_PROPERTY`\ Property value: String representing path to supporting files directory

Selenium v4.11

    service = webdriver.IeService(service_args=["–extract-path="+temp_dir])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << "–extract-path=#{root_directory}"

3.5 - Safari specific functionality

These are capabilities and features specific to Apple Safari browsers.

Unlike Chromium and Firefox drivers, the safaridriver is installed with the Operating System. To enable automation on Safari, run the following command from the terminal:

safaridriver --enable

Options

Capabilities common to all browsers are described on the Options page.

Capabilities unique to Safari can be found at Apple’s page About WebDriver for Safari

Starting a Safari session with basic defined options looks like this:

        SafariOptions options = new SafariOptions();
        driver = new SafariDriver(options);
    options = webdriver.SafariOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Safari(options=options)
            var options = new SafariOptions();
            driver = new SafariDriver(options);
      options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.safari
      @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :safari, options: options
      let driver = await env.builder()
      .setSafariOptions(options)
      .build();
val options = SafariOptions()
val driver = SafariDriver(options)

Mobile

Those looking to automate Safari on iOS should look to the Appium project.

Service

Service settings common to all browsers are described on the Service page.

Logging

Unlike other browsers, Safari doesn’t let you choose where logs are output, or change levels. The one option available is to turn logs off or on. If logs are toggled on, they can be found at:~/Library/Logs/com.apple.WebDriver/.

Selenium v4.10

                .withLogging(true)

Note: Java also allows setting console output by System Property;
Property key: SafariDriverService.SAFARI_DRIVER_LOGGING
Property value: "true" or "false"

    service = webdriver.SafariService(service_args=["--diagnose"])

Selenium v4.8

      service.args << '--diagnose'

Safari Technology Preview

Apple provides a development version of their browser — Safari Technology Preview To use this version in your code:

4 - 待機

Perhaps the most common challenge for browser automation is ensuring that the web application is in a state to execute a particular Selenium command as desired. The processes often end up in a race condition where sometimes the browser gets into the right state first (things work as intended) and sometimes the Selenium code executes first (things do not work as intended). This is one of the primary causes of flaky tests.

All navigation commands wait for a specific readyState value based on the page load strategy (the default value to wait for is "complete") before the driver returns control to the code. The readyState only concerns itself with loading assets defined in the HTML, but loaded JavaScript assets often result in changes to the site, and elements that need to be interacted with may not yet be on the page when the code is ready to execute the next Selenium command.

Similarly, in a lot of single page applications, elements get dynamically added to a page or change visibility based on a click. An element must be both present and displayed on the page in order for Selenium to interact with it.

Take this page for example: https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/dynamic.html When the “Add a box!” button is clicked, a “div” element that does not exist is created. When the “Reveal a new input” button is clicked, a hidden text field element is displayed. In both cases the transition takes a couple seconds. If the Selenium code is to click one of these buttons and interact with the resulting element, it will do so before that element is ready and fail.

The first solution many people turn to is adding a sleep statement to pause the code execution for a set period of time. Because the code can’t know exactly how long it needs to wait, this can fail when it doesn’t sleep long enough. Alternately, if the value is set too high and a sleep statement is added in every place it is needed, the duration of the session can become prohibitive.

Selenium provides two different mechanisms for synchronization that are better.

Implicit waits

Selenium has a built-in way to automatically wait for elements called an implicit wait. An implicit wait value can be set either with the timeouts capability in the browser options, or with a driver method (as shown below).

This is a global setting that applies to every element location call for the entire session. The default value is 0, which means that if the element is not found, it will immediately return an error. If an implicit wait is set, the driver will wait for the duration of the provided value before returning the error. Note that as soon as the element is located, the driver will return the element reference and the code will continue executing, so a larger implicit wait value won’t necessarily increase the duration of the session.

Warning: Do not mix implicit and explicit waits. Doing so can cause unpredictable wait times. For example, setting an implicit wait of 10 seconds and an explicit wait of 15 seconds could cause a timeout to occur after 20 seconds.

Solving our example with an implicit wait looks like this:

    driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofSeconds(2));
    driver.implicitly_wait(2)
            driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2);
    driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 2
            await driver.manage().setTimeouts({ implicit: 2000 });

Explicit waits

Explicit waits are loops added to the code that poll the application for a specific condition to evaluate as true before it exits the loop and continues to the next command in the code. If the condition is not met before a designated timeout value, the code will give a timeout error. Since there are many ways for the application not to be in the desired state, explicit waits are a great choice to specify the exact condition to wait for in each place it is needed. Another nice feature is that, by default, the Selenium Wait class automatically waits for the designated element to exist.

This example shows the condition being waited for as a lambda. Java also supports Expected Conditions

    Wait<WebDriver> wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, Duration.ofSeconds(2));
    wait.until(d -> revealed.isDisplayed());

This example shows the condition being waited for as a lambda. Python also supports Expected Conditions

    wait = WebDriverWait(driver, timeout=2)
    wait.until(lambda d : revealed.is_displayed())
            WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2));
            wait.Until(d => revealed.Displayed);
    wait = Selenium::WebDriver::Wait.new
    wait.until { revealed.displayed? }

JavaScript also supports Expected Conditions

            await driver.wait(until.elementIsVisible(revealed), 2000);

Customization

The Wait class can be instantiated with various parameters that will change how the conditions are evaluated.

This can include:

  • Changing how often the code is evaluated (polling interval)
  • Specifying which exceptions should be handled automatically
  • Changing the total timeout length
  • Customizing the timeout message

For instance, if the element not interactable error is retried by default, then we can add an action on a method inside the code getting executed (we just need to make sure that the code returns true when it is successful):

The easiest way to customize Waits in Java is to use the FluentWait class:

    Wait<WebDriver> wait =
        new FluentWait<>(driver)
            .withTimeout(Duration.ofSeconds(2))
            .pollingEvery(Duration.ofMillis(300))
            .ignoring(ElementNotInteractableException.class);

    wait.until(
        d -> {
          revealed.sendKeys("Displayed");
          return true;
        });
    errors = [NoSuchElementException, ElementNotInteractableException]
    wait = WebDriverWait(driver, timeout=2, poll_frequency=.2, ignored_exceptions=errors)
    wait.until(lambda d : revealed.send_keys("Displayed") or True)
            WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2))
            {
                PollingInterval = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(300),
            };
            wait.IgnoreExceptionTypes(typeof(ElementNotInteractableException));

            wait.Until(d => {
                revealed.SendKeys("Displayed");
                return true;
            });
    errors = [Selenium::WebDriver::Error::NoSuchElementError,
              Selenium::WebDriver::Error::ElementNotInteractableError]
    wait = Selenium::WebDriver::Wait.new(timeout: 2,
                                         interval: 0.3,
                                         ignore: errors)

    wait.until { revealed.send_keys('Displayed') || true }

5 - Web要素

DOM内の要素オブジェクトの識別と操作

ほとんどの人のSeleniumコードの大部分は、Web要素の操作に関連しています。

5.1 - File Upload

Because Selenium cannot interact with the file upload dialog, it provides a way to upload files without opening the dialog. If the element is an input element with type file, you can use the send keys method to send the full path to the file that will be uploaded.

    WebElement fileInput = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("input[type=file]"));
    fileInput.sendKeys(uploadFile.getAbsolutePath());
    driver.findElement(By.id("file-submit")).click();
    file_input = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR, "input[type='file']")
    file_input.send_keys(upload_file)
    driver.find_element(By.ID, "file-submit").click()
            IWebElement fileInput = driver.FindElement(By.CssSelector("input[type=file]"));
            fileInput.SendKeys(uploadFile);
            driver.FindElement(By.Id("file-submit")).Click();
    file_input = driver.find_element(css: 'input[type=file]')
    file_input.send_keys(upload_file)
    driver.find_element(id: 'file-submit').click
      await driver.findElement(By.id("file-upload")).sendKeys(image);
      await driver.findElement(By.id("file-submit")).submit();

Move Code

```java import org.openqa.selenium.By import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver fun main() { val driver = ChromeDriver() driver.get("https://the-internet.herokuapp.com/upload") driver.findElement(By.id("file-upload")).sendKeys("selenium-snapshot.jpg") driver.findElement(By.id("file-submit")).submit() if(driver.pageSource.contains("File Uploaded!")) { println("file uploaded") } else{ println("file not uploaded") } } ```

5.2 - 要素を探す

DOM内の1つ以上の特定の要素を識別する方法

ロケーターは、ページ上の要素を識別する方法です。 これは、検索要素 メソッドに渡される引数です。

検出方法とは別にロケーターを宣言するタイミングと理由など、 ロケーターに関するヒントについては、 推奨されるテストプラクティス を確認してください。

要素選択の方法

WebDriverには標準のロケータが8種類あります。

ロケータ詳細
class nameclass名に値を含む要素を探す (複合クラス名は使えない)
css selectorCSSセレクタが一致する要素を探す
idid属性が一致する要素を探す
namename属性が一致する要素を探す
link texta要素のテキストが一致する要素を探す
partial link texta要素のテキストが部分一致する要素を探す
tag nameタグ名が一致する要素を探す
xpathXPathと一致する要素を探す

Creating Locators

To work on a web element using Selenium, we need to first locate it on the web page. Selenium provides us above mentioned ways, using which we can locate element on the page. To understand and create locator we will use the following HTML snippet.

<html>
<body>
<style>
.information {
  background-color: white;
  color: black;
  padding: 10px;
}
</style>
<h2>Contact Selenium</h2>

<form action="/action_page.php">
  <input type="radio" name="gender" value="m" />Male &nbsp;
  <input type="radio" name="gender" value="f" />Female <br>
  <br>
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input class="information" type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="Jane"><br><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
  <input class="information" type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Doe"><br><br>
  <label for="newsletter">Newsletter:</label>
  <input type="checkbox" name="newsletter" value="1" /><br><br>
  <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form> 

<p>To know more about Selenium, visit the official page 
<a href ="www.selenium.dev">Selenium Official Page</a> 
</p>

</body>
</html>

class name

The HTML page web element can have attribute class. We can see an example in the above shown HTML snippet. We can identify these elements using the class name locator available in Selenium.

    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
	driver.findElement(By.className("information"));
  
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()
	driver.find_element(By.CLASS_NAME, "information")
  
    var driver = new ChromeDriver();
	driver.FindElement(By.ClassName("information"));
  
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
	driver.find_element(class: 'information')
  
    let driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
	const loc = await driver.findElement(By.className('information'));
  
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
	val loc: WebElement = driver.findElement(By.className("information"))
  

css selector

CSS is the language used to style HTML pages. We can use css selector locator strategy to identify the element on the page. If the element has an id, we create the locator as css = #id. Otherwise the format we follow is css =[attribute=value] . Let us see an example from above HTML snippet. We will create locator for First Name textbox, using css.

    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
	driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("#fname"));
  
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()
	driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR, "#fname")
  
    var driver = new ChromeDriver();
	driver.FindElement(By.CssSelector("#fname"));
  
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
	driver.find_element(css: '#fname')
  
    let driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
	const loc = await driver.findElement(By.css('#fname'));
  
    val driver = ChromeDriver()
	val loc: WebElement = driver.findElement(By.css("#fname"))
  

id

We can use the ID attribute available with element in a web page to locate it. Generally the ID property should be unique for a element on the web page. We will identify the Last Name field using it.

    WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
	driver.findElement(By.id("lname"));
  
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()
	driver.find_element(By.ID, "lname")
  
    var driver = new ChromeDriver();
	driver.FindElement(By.Id("lname"));
  
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
	driver.find_element(id: 'lname')
  
    let driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
	const loc = await driver.findElement(By.id(