Write your first Selenium script

Step-by-step instructions for constructing a Selenium script

Once you have Selenium installed and Drivers installed, you’re ready to write Selenium code.

Eight Basic Components

Everything Selenium does is send the browser commands to do something or send requests for information. Most of what you’ll do with Selenium is a combination of these basic commands:

1. Start the session

For more details on starting a session read our documentation on driver sessions

        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()
            IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome
            driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
        driver = ChromeDriver()

2. Take action on browser

In this example we are navigating to a web page.

        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");
    driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")
            driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");
    driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html')
            await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html');
        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

3. Request browser information

There are a bunch of types of information about the browser you can request, including window handles, browser size / position, cookies, alerts, etc.

        String title = driver.getTitle();
    title = driver.title
            var title = driver.Title;
    title = driver.title
            let title = await driver.getTitle();
        val title = driver.title

4. Establish Waiting Strategy

Synchronizing the code with the current state of the browser is one of the biggest challenges with Selenium, and doing it well is an advanced topic.

Essentially you want to make sure that the element is on the page before you attempt to locate it and the element is in an interactable state before you attempt to interact with it.

An implicit wait is rarely the best solution, but it’s the easiest to demonstrate here, so we’ll use it as a placeholder.

Read more about Waiting strategies.

        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500));
    driver.implicitly_wait(0.5)
            driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(500);
    driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 500
            await driver.manage().setTimeouts({ implicit: 500 });
        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500))

5. Find an element

The majority of commands in most Selenium sessions are element related, and you can’t interact with one without first finding an element

        WebElement textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"));
        WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"));
    text_box = driver.find_element(by=By.NAME, value="my-text")
    submit_button = driver.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value="button")
            var textBox = driver.FindElement(By.Name("my-text"));
            var submitButton = driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button"));
    text_box = driver.find_element(name: 'my-text')
    submit_button = driver.find_element(tag_name: 'button')
            let textBox = await driver.findElement(By.name('my-text'));
            let submitButton = await driver.findElement(By.css('button'));
        var textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"))
        val submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"))

6. Take action on element

There are only a handful of actions to take on an element, but you will use them frequently.

        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium");
        submitButton.click();
    text_box.send_keys("Selenium")
    submit_button.click()
            textBox.SendKeys("Selenium");
            submitButton.Click();
    text_box.send_keys('Selenium')
    submit_button.click
            await textBox.sendKeys('Selenium');
            await submitButton.click();
        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium")
        submitButton.click()

7. Request element information

Elements store a lot of information that can be requested.

        String value = message.getText();
    value = message.text
            var value = message.Text;
    value = message.text
            let value = await message.getText();
        val value = message.getText()

8. End the session

This ends the driver process, which by default closes the browser as well. No more commands can be sent to this driver instance.

        driver.quit();
    driver.quit()
            driver.Quit();
        after(async () => await driver.quit());
        driver.quit()

Putting everything together

Let’s combine these 8 things into a complete script with assertions that can be executed by a test runner.

package dev.selenium.getting_started;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

import java.time.Duration;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;

public class FirstScriptTest {

    @Test
    public void eightComponents() {
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");

        String title = driver.getTitle();
        assertEquals("Web form", title);

        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500));

        WebElement textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"));
        WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"));

        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium");
        submitButton.click();

        WebElement message = driver.findElement(By.id("message"));
        String value = message.getText();
        assertEquals("Received!", value);

        driver.quit();
    }

}
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By


def test_eight_components():
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()

    driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

    title = driver.title
    assert title == "Web form"

    driver.implicitly_wait(0.5)

    text_box = driver.find_element(by=By.NAME, value="my-text")
    submit_button = driver.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value="button")

    text_box.send_keys("Selenium")
    submit_button.click()

    message = driver.find_element(by=By.ID, value="message")
    value = message.text
    assert value == "Received!"

    driver.quit()
using System;
using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace SeleniumDocs.GettingStarted
{
    [TestClass]
    public class FirstScriptTest
    {

        [TestMethod]
        public void ChromeSession()
        {
            IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

            driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html");

            var title = driver.Title;
            Assert.AreEqual("Web form", title);

            driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(500);

            var textBox = driver.FindElement(By.Name("my-text"));
            var submitButton = driver.FindElement(By.TagName("button"));
            
            textBox.SendKeys("Selenium");
            submitButton.Click();
            
            var message = driver.FindElement(By.Id("message"));
            var value = message.Text;
            Assert.AreEqual("Received!", value);
            
            driver.Quit();
        }
    }
}
# frozen_string_literal: true

require 'spec_helper'

RSpec.describe 'First Script' do
  it 'uses eight components' do
    driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

    driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html')

    title = driver.title
    expect(title).to eq('Web form')

    driver.manage.timeouts.implicit_wait = 500

    text_box = driver.find_element(name: 'my-text')
    submit_button = driver.find_element(tag_name: 'button')

    text_box.send_keys('Selenium')
    submit_button.click

    message = driver.find_element(id: 'message')
    value = message.text
    expect(value).to eq('Received!')

    driver.quit
  end
end
const { By, Builder } = require('selenium-webdriver');
const { suite } = require('selenium-webdriver/testing');
const assert = require("assert");

suite(function(env) {
    describe('First script', function() {
        let driver;

        before(async function() {
            driver = await new Builder().forBrowser('chrome').build();
        });

        after(async () => await driver.quit());

        it('First Selenium script', async function() {
            await driver.get('https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html');

            let title = await driver.getTitle();
            assert.equal("Web form", title);

            await driver.manage().setTimeouts({ implicit: 500 });

            let textBox = await driver.findElement(By.name('my-text'));
            let submitButton = await driver.findElement(By.css('button'));

            await textBox.sendKeys('Selenium');
            await submitButton.click();

            let message = await driver.findElement(By.id('message'));
            let value = await message.getText();
            assert.equal("Received!", value);
        });

    });
});
package dev.selenium.getting_started

import io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager
import org.junit.jupiter.api.*
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals
import org.openqa.selenium.By
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
import java.time.Duration

@TestInstance(TestInstance.Lifecycle.PER_CLASS)
class FirstScriptTest {
    private lateinit var driver: WebDriver

    @BeforeAll
    fun setupAll() {
        WebDriverManager.chromedriver().setup()
    }

    @BeforeEach
    fun setup() {
        driver = ChromeDriver()
    }

    @AfterEach
    fun teardown() {
        driver.quit()
    }

    @Test
    fun eightComponents() {
        driver.get("https://www.selenium.dev/selenium/web/web-form.html")

        val title = driver.title
        assertEquals("Web form", title)

        driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofMillis(500))

        var textBox = driver.findElement(By.name("my-text"))
        val submitButton = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("button"))

        textBox.sendKeys("Selenium")
        submitButton.click()

        val message = driver.findElement(By.id("message"))
        val value = message.getText()
        assertEquals("Received!", value)
    }

}

Test Runners

If you are using Selenium for testing, you will want to execute your Selenium code using test runner tools.

Many of the code examples in this documentation can be found in our example repositories. There are multiple options in each language, but here is what we are using in our examples:

// Add instructions
// Add instructions
// Add instructions
// Add instructions

Install Mocha Test runner using below command in your terminal

npm install mocha

and run your tests using below command

mocha firstScript.spec.js
// Add instructions

Next Steps

Take what you’ve learned and build out your Selenium code.

As you find more functionality that you need, read up on the rest of our WebDriver documentation.

Last modified November 8, 2022: Remove driver managers (#1217) (66db4ad35b3)