Firefox specific functionality

These are capabilities and features specific to Mozilla Firefox browsers.

Selenium 4 requires Firefox 78 or greater. It is recommended to always use the latest version of geckodriver.


Capabilities common to all browsers are described on the Options page.

Capabilities unique to Firefox can be found at Mozilla’s page for firefoxOptions

Starting a Firefox session with basic defined options looks like this:

        FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
        driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);

Note that Python must specify service class to use Driver Manager

    service = FirefoxService(executable_path=GeckoDriverManager().install())
    options = FirefoxOptions()
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(options=options, service=service)
            var options = new FirefoxOptions();
            var driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);
    options = Selenium::WebDriver::Options.firefox
    @driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox, options: options
            let options = new firefox.Options();
            driver = await new Builder()


The args parameter is for a list of Command line switches used when starting the browser.
Commonly used args include -headless and "-profile", "/path/to/profile"

Add an argument to options:

Start browser in a specified location

The binary parameter takes the path of an alternate location of browser to use. For example, with this parameter you can use geckodriver to drive Firefox Nightly instead of the production version when both are present on your computer.

Add a browser location to options:


There are several ways to work with Firefox profiles

FirefoxProfile profile = new FirefoxProfile();
FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();
driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.options import Options
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile import FirefoxProfile
firefox_profile = FirefoxProfile()
firefox_profile.set_preference("javascript.enabled", False)
options.profile = firefox_profile
var options = new FirefoxOptions();
var profile = new FirefoxProfile();
options.Profile = profile;
var driver = new RemoteWebDriver(options);
profile =
profile[''] = "/tmp/webdriver-downloads"
options = profile)
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :firefox, options: options
const { Builder } = require("selenium-webdriver");
const firefox = require('selenium-webdriver/firefox');

const options = new firefox.Options();
let profile = '/path to custom profile';
const driver = new Builder()
val options = FirefoxOptions()
options.profile = FirefoxProfile()
driver = RemoteWebDriver(options)


Unlike Chrome, Firefox extensions are not added as part of capabilities, they are created after starting the driver.


A signed xpi file you would get from Mozilla Addon page

Unsigned installation

When working with an unfinished or unpublished extension, it will likely not be signed. As such, it can only be installed as “temporary.” This can be done by passing in either a zip file or a directory, here’s an example with a directory:


Uninstalling an addon requires knowing its id. The id can be obtained from the return value when installing the add-on.

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