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Additional features

Set of packages and functionalities to simplify automation with Selenium.

1 - Working With Colors

You will occasionally want to validate the colour of something as part of your tests; the problem is that colour definitions on the web are not constant. Would it not be nice if there was an easy way to compare a HEX representation of a colour with a RGB representation of a colour, or a RGBA representation of a colour with a HSLA representation of a colour?

Worry not. There is a solution: the Color class!

First of all, you will need to import the class:

import org.openqa.selenium.support.Color;
  
from selenium.webdriver.support.color import Color
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
include Selenium::WebDriver::Support
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
import org.openqa.selenium.support.Color

You can now start creating colour objects. Every colour object will need to be created from a string representation of your colour. Supported colour representations are:

private final Color HEX_COLOUR = Color.fromString("#2F7ED8");
private final Color RGB_COLOUR = Color.fromString("rgb(255, 255, 255)");
private final Color RGB_COLOUR = Color.fromString("rgb(40%, 20%, 40%)");
private final Color RGBA_COLOUR = Color.fromString("rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.5)");
private final Color RGBA_COLOUR = Color.fromString("rgba(40%, 20%, 40%, 0.5)");
private final Color HSL_COLOUR = Color.fromString("hsl(100, 0%, 50%)");
private final Color HSLA_COLOUR = Color.fromString("hsla(100, 0%, 50%, 0.5)");
  
HEX_COLOUR = Color.from_string('#2F7ED8')
RGB_COLOUR = Color.from_string('rgb(255, 255, 255)')
RGB_COLOUR = Color.from_string('rgb(40%, 20%, 40%)')
RGBA_COLOUR = Color.from_string('rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.5)')
RGBA_COLOUR = Color.from_string('rgba(40%, 20%, 40%, 0.5)')
HSL_COLOUR = Color.from_string('hsl(100, 0%, 50%)')
HSLA_COLOUR = Color.from_string('hsla(100, 0%, 50%, 0.5)')
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
HEX_COLOUR = Color.from_string('#2F7ED8')
RGB_COLOUR = Color.from_string('rgb(255, 255, 255)')
RGB_COLOUR = Color.from_string('rgb(40%, 20%, 40%)')
RGBA_COLOUR = Color.from_string('rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.5)')
RGBA_COLOUR = Color.from_string('rgba(40%, 20%, 40%, 0.5)')
HSL_COLOUR = Color.from_string('hsl(100, 0%, 50%)')
HSLA_COLOUR = Color.from_string('hsla(100, 0%, 50%, 0.5)')
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
private val HEX_COLOUR = Color.fromString("#2F7ED8")
private val RGB_COLOUR = Color.fromString("rgb(255, 255, 255)")
private val RGB_COLOUR_PERCENT = Color.fromString("rgb(40%, 20%, 40%)")
private val RGBA_COLOUR = Color.fromString("rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.5)")
private val RGBA_COLOUR_PERCENT = Color.fromString("rgba(40%, 20%, 40%, 0.5)")
private val HSL_COLOUR = Color.fromString("hsl(100, 0%, 50%)")
private val HSLA_COLOUR = Color.fromString("hsla(100, 0%, 50%, 0.5)")
  

The Color class also supports all of the base colour definitions specified in http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-color/#html4.

private final Color BLACK = Color.fromString("black");
private final Color CHOCOLATE = Color.fromString("chocolate");
private final Color HOTPINK = Color.fromString("hotpink");
  
BLACK = Color.from_string('black')
CHOCOLATE = Color.from_string('chocolate')
HOTPINK = Color.from_string('hotpink')
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
BLACK = Color.from_string('black')
CHOCOLATE = Color.from_string('chocolate')
HOTPINK = Color.from_string('hotpink')
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
private val BLACK = Color.fromString("black")
private val CHOCOLATE = Color.fromString("chocolate")
private val HOTPINK = Color.fromString("hotpink")
  

Sometimes browsers will return a colour value of “transparent” if no colour has been set on an element. The Color class also supports this:

private final Color TRANSPARENT = Color.fromString("transparent");
  
TRANSPARENT = Color.from_string('transparent')
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
TRANSPARENT = Color.from_string('transparent')
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
private val TRANSPARENT = Color.fromString("transparent")
  

You can now safely query an element to get its colour/background colour knowing that any response will be correctly parsed and converted into a valid Color object:

Color loginButtonColour = Color.fromString(driver.findElement(By.id("login")).getCssValue("color"));

Color loginButtonBackgroundColour = Color.fromString(driver.findElement(By.id("login")).getCssValue("background-color"));
  
login_button_colour = Color.from_string(driver.find_element(By.ID,'login').value_of_css_property('color'))

login_button_background_colour = Color.from_string(driver.find_element(By.ID,'login').value_of_css_property('background-color'))
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
login_button_colour = Color.from_string(driver.find_element(id: 'login').css_value('color'))

login_button_background_colour = Color.from_string(driver.find_element(id: 'login').css_value('background-color'))
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
val loginButtonColour = Color.fromString(driver.findElement(By.id("login")).getCssValue("color"))

val loginButtonBackgroundColour = Color.fromString(driver.findElement(By.id("login")).getCssValue("background-color"))
  

You can then directly compare colour objects:

assert loginButtonBackgroundColour.equals(HOTPINK);
  
assert login_button_background_colour == HOTPINK
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
assert(login_button_background_colour == HOTPINK)
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
assert(loginButtonBackgroundColour.equals(HOTPINK))
  

Or you can convert the colour into one of the following formats and perform a static validation:

assert loginButtonBackgroundColour.asHex().equals("#ff69b4");
assert loginButtonBackgroundColour.asRgba().equals("rgba(255, 105, 180, 1)");
assert loginButtonBackgroundColour.asRgb().equals("rgb(255, 105, 180)");
  
assert login_button_background_colour.hex == '#ff69b4'
assert login_button_background_colour.rgba == 'rgba(255, 105, 180, 1)'
assert login_button_background_colour.rgb == 'rgb(255, 105, 180)'
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
assert(login_button_background_colour.hex == '#ff69b4')
assert(login_button_background_colour.rgba == 'rgba(255, 105, 180, 1)')
assert(login_button_background_colour.rgb == 'rgb(255, 105, 180)')
  
// This feature is not implemented - Help us by sending a pr to implement this feature
  
assert(loginButtonBackgroundColour.asHex().equals("#ff69b4"))
assert(loginButtonBackgroundColour.asRgba().equals("rgba(255, 105, 180, 1)"))
assert(loginButtonBackgroundColour.asRgb().equals("rgb(255, 105, 180)"))
  

Colours are no longer a problem.

2 - File Upload

The file upload dialog could be handled using Selenium, when the input element is of type file. An example of it, could be found on this web page- https://the-internet.herokuapp.com/upload We will require to have a file available with us, which we need to upload. The code to upload the file for different programming languages will be as follows -

import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager;
class fileUploadDoc{
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		WebDriverManager.chromedriver().setup();
		WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
		driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
		driver.get("https://the-internet.herokuapp.com/upload");
		//we want to import selenium-snapshot file. 
		driver.findElement(By.id("file-upload")).sendKeys("selenium-snapshot.jpg");
		driver.findElement(By.id("file-submit")).submit();
		if(driver.getPageSource().contains("File Uploaded!")) {
			System.out.println("file uploaded");
		}
		else{
				System.out.println("file not uploaded");
			}
		driver.quit();
	}
}

  
from selenium import webdriver
from webdriver_manager.chrome import ChromeDriverManager
driver = webdriver.Chrome(ChromeDriverManager().install())
driver.implicitly_wait(10)
driver.get("https://the-internet.herokuapp.com/upload");
driver.find_element(By.ID,"file-upload").send_keys("selenium-snapshot.jpg")
driver.find_element(By.ID,"file-submit").submit()
if(driver.page_source.find("File Uploaded!")):
    print("file upload success")
else:
    print("file upload not successful")
driver.quit()

  
using System;
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace SeleniumDocumentation.SeleniumPRs
{
    class FileUploadExample
    {
        static void Main(String[] args)
        {
            IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
            try
            {
                // Navigate to Url
                driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("https://the-internet.herokuapp.com/upload");
                driver.FindElement(By.Id("file-upload")).SendKeys("selenium-snapshot.jpg");
                driver.FindElement(By.Id("file-submit")).Submit();
                if (driver.PageSource.Contains("File Uploaded!"))
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("file uploaded");
                }
                else
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("file not uploaded");
                }
                driver.Quit();

            }

            }
}

  
// Help us by sending a code sample for file upload

  
// Help us by sending a code sample for file upload
  
  // Help us by sending a code sample for file upload

So the above example code helps to understand how we can upload a file using Selenium.

3 - ThreadGuard

This class is only available in the Java Binding

ThreadGuard checks that a driver is called only from the same thread that created it. Threading issues especially when running tests in Parallel may have mysterious and hard to diagnose errors. Using this wrapper prevents this category of errors and will raise an exception when it happens.

The following example simulate a clash of threads:

public class DriverClash {
  //thread main (id 1) created this driver
  private WebDriver protectedDriver = ThreadGuard.protect(new ChromeDriver()); 

  static {
    System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "<Set path to your Chromedriver>");
  }
  
  //Thread-1 (id 24) is calling the same driver causing the clash to happen
  Runnable r1 = () -> {protectedDriver.get("https://selenium.dev");};
  Thread thr1 = new Thread(r1);
   
  void runThreads(){
    thr1.start();
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    new DriverClash().runThreads();
  }
}

The result shown below:

Exception in thread "Thread-1" org.openqa.selenium.WebDriverException:
Thread safety error; this instance of WebDriver was constructed
on thread main (id 1)and is being accessed by thread Thread-1 (id 24)
This is not permitted and *will* cause undefined behaviour

As seen in the example:

  • protectedDriver Will be created in Main thread
  • We use Java Runnable to spin up a new process and a new Thread to run the process
  • Both Thread will clash because the Main Thread does not have protectedDriver in it’s memory.
  • ThreadGuard.protect will throw an exception.

Note:

This does not replace the need for using ThreadLocal to manage drivers when running parallel.