Remote WebDriver

Page being translated from English to German. Do you speak German? Help us to translate it by sending us pull requests!

Der WebDriver kann über eine Remoteverbindung genau so verwendet werden wie bei einer lokalen Verbindung. Der Hauptunterschied ist das der remote WebDriver konfiguriert werden muss, sodass die Testdurchführung auf einem anderen Rechner gestartet werden kann.

Der remote WebDriver besteht aus zwei Komponenten: Einem Client und einem Server. Der Client besteht aus dem WebDriver-Test und der Server ist ein einfaches Java Servlet, welches auf jedem modernen JEE App Server gehostet werden kann.

Um einen remote WebDriver Client zu starten, ist es notwendig eine Verbindung zum Remote WebDriver aufzubauen. Das geschiet, indem eine Verbindung zu einer URL aufgebaut wird, der die Testdurchführung vornimmt. Die gewünschte Konfiguration wird mithilfe der Capabilities (= Einstellungen) definiert. Im folgenden Beispiel wird ein remote WebDriver Objekt instanziert, der mit dem remote Webserver, www.example.com, verbunden wird, um dort die Tests mit einem Firefox Browser auszuführen.

FirefoxOptions firefoxOptions = new FirefoxOptions();
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("http://www.example.com"), firefoxOptions);
driver.get("http://www.google.com");
driver.quit();
  
from selenium import webdriver

firefox_options = webdriver.FirefoxOptions()
driver = webdriver.Remote(
    command_executor='http://www.example.com',
    options=firefox_options
)
driver.get("http://www.google.com")
driver.quit()
  
 FirefoxOptions firefoxOptions = new FirefoxOptions();
 IWebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new Uri("http://www.example.com"), firefoxOptions);
 driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("http://www.google.com");
 driver.Quit();
  
require 'selenium-webdriver'

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :remote, url: "http://www.example.com", desired_capabilities: :firefox
driver.get "http://www.google.com"
driver.close
  
const { Builder, Capabilities } = require("selenium-webdriver");
var capabilities = Capabilities.firefox();
(async function helloSelenium() {
    let driver = new Builder()        
        .usingServer("http://example.com")   
        .withCapabilities(capabilities)
        .build();
    try {
        await driver.get('http://www.google.com');
    } finally {
        await driver.quit();
    }
})(); 
  
firefoxOptions = FirefoxOptions()
driver: WebDriver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("http://www.example.com"), firefoxOptions)
driver.get("http://www.google.com")
driver.quit()
  

Um die Testkonfiguration weiter anzupassen, können weitere Einstellungen hinzugefügt werden.

Browser Optionen

Angenommen es ist gewünscht Chrome unter Windows XP in der Version 67 zu verwenden:

ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
chromeOptions.setCapability("browserVersion", "67");
chromeOptions.setCapability("platformName", "Windows XP");
WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("http://www.example.com"), chromeOptions);
driver.get("http://www.google.com");
driver.quit();
  
from selenium import webdriver

chrome_options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
chrome_options.set_capability("browserVersion", "67")
chrome_options.set_capability("platformName", "Windows XP")
driver = webdriver.Remote(
    command_executor='http://www.example.com',
    options=chrome_options
)
driver.get("http://www.google.com")
driver.quit()  
  
var chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
chromeOptions.BrowserVersion = "67";
chromeOptions.PlatformName = "Windows XP";
IWebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new Uri("http://www.example.com"), chromeOptions);
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("http://www.google.com");
driver.Quit();
  
caps = Selenium::WebDriver::Remote::Capabilities.chrome
caps.platform = Windows XP
caps.version = 67

driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :remote, :url => "http://www.example.com", :desired_capabilities => caps
  
const { Builder } = require("selenium-webdriver");
const chrome = require("selenium-webdriver/chrome");
let opts = new chrome.Options();
opts.setAcceptInsecureCerts(true);
opts.setBrowserVersion('67');
opts.setPlatform('Windows XP');
(async function helloSelenium() {
    let driver = new Builder()
        .usingServer("http://example.com")
        .forBrowser('chrome')
        .setChromeOptions(opts)
        .build();
    try {
        await driver.get('http://www.google.com');
    }
    finally {
        await driver.quit();
    }
})();
  
val chromeOptions = ChromeOptions()
chromeOptions.setCapability("browserVersion", "67")
chromeOptions.setCapability("platformName", "Windows XP")
val driver: WebDriver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("http://www.example.com"), chromeOptions)
driver.get("http://www.google.com")
driver.quit()
  

Detektor für lokale Dateien

Der Detektor erlaubt Dateien vom Client zum remote Server zu übertragen. Es kann z.B. notwendig sein eine Datei in einer Webapplikation hochzuladen. Der remote WebDriver kann automatisch die Datei vom lokalen Rechner zum remote Rechner hochladen, während der Testdurchführung. Dadurch ist es möglich die Datei vom remote Rechner, der die Tests durchführt, hochzuladen. Standardmässig die dies nicht aktiviert, kann jedoch wie folgt aktiviert werden:

driver.setFileDetector(new LocalFileDetector());
  
from selenium.webdriver.remote.file_detector import LocalFileDetector

driver.file_detector = LocalFileDetector()
  
var allowsDetection = this.driver as IAllowsFileDetection;
if (allowsDetection != null)
{
   allowsDetection.FileDetector = new LocalFileDetector();
}
  
@driver.file_detector = lambda do |args|
  # args => ["/path/to/file"]
  str = args.first.to_s
  str if File.exist?(str)
end
  
var remote = require('selenium-webdriver/remote');
driver.setFileDetector(new remote.FileDetector);  
  
driver.fileDetector = LocalFileDetector()
  

Dieser Programmcode, ermöglicht es eine Datei während den Tests hochzuladen, indem der folgende Programmcode verwendet wird:

driver.get("http://sso.dev.saucelabs.com/test/guinea-file-upload");
WebElement upload = driver.findElement(By.id("myfile"));
upload.sendKeys("/Users/sso/the/local/path/to/darkbulb.jpg");
  
driver.get("http://sso.dev.saucelabs.com/test/guinea-file-upload")

driver.find_element(By.ID, "myfile").send_keys("/Users/sso/the/local/path/to/darkbulb.jpg")
  
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl("http://sso.dev.saucelabs.com/test/guinea-file-upload");
IWebElement upload = driver.FindElement(By.Id("myfile"));
upload.SendKeys(@"/Users/sso/the/local/path/to/darkbulb.jpg");
  
@driver.navigate.to "http://sso.dev.saucelabs.com/test/guinea-file-upload"
    element = @driver.find_element(:id, 'myfile')
    element.send_keys "/Users/sso/SauceLabs/sauce/hostess/maitred/maitred/public/images/darkbulb.jpg"
  
driver.get("http://sso.dev.saucelabs.com/test/guinea-file-upload");
var upload = driver.findElement(By.id("myfile"));
upload.sendKeys("/Users/sso/the/local/path/to/darkbulb.jpg");  
  
driver.get("http://sso.dev.saucelabs.com/test/guinea-file-upload")
val upload: WebElement = driver.findElement(By.id("myfile"))
upload.sendKeys("/Users/sso/the/local/path/to/darkbulb.jpg")
  

Tracing client requests

This feature is only available for Java client binding (Beta onwards). The Remote WebDriver client sends requests to the Selenium Grid server, which passes them to the WebDriver. Tracing should be enabled at the server and client-side to trace the HTTP requests end-to-end. Both ends should have a trace exporter setup pointing to the visualization framework. By default, tracing is enabled for both client and server. To set up the visualization framework Jaeger UI and Selenium Grid 4, please refer to Tracing Setup for the desired version.

For client-side setup, follow the steps below.

Beta 1

Add the required dependencies

Installation of external libraries for tracing exporter can be done using Maven. Add the opentelemetry-exporter-jaeger and grpc-netty dependency in your project pom.xml:

  <dependency>
      <groupId>io.opentelemetry</groupId>
      <artifactId>opentelemetry-exporter-jaeger</artifactId>
      <version>0.14.0</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.grpc</groupId>
      <artifactId>grpc-netty</artifactId>
      <version>1.34.1</version>
    </dependency>

Add/pass the required system properties while running the client

System.setProperty("JAEGER_SERVICE_NAME", "selenium-java-client");
System.setProperty("JAEGER_AGENT_HOST","localhost");
System.setProperty("JAEGER_AGENT_PORT","14250");

ImmutableCapabilities capabilities = new ImmutableCapabilities("browserName", "chrome");

WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("http://www.example.com"), capabilities);

driver.get("http://www.google.com");

driver.quit();

  

Beta 2 onwards

Add the required dependencies

Installation of external libraries for tracing exporter can be done using Maven. Add the opentelemetry-exporter-jaeger and grpc-netty dependency in your project pom.xml:

  <dependency>
      <groupId>io.opentelemetry</groupId>
      <artifactId>opentelemetry-exporter-jaeger</artifactId>
      <version>1.0.0</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.grpc</groupId>
      <artifactId>grpc-netty</artifactId>
      <version>1.35.0</version>
    </dependency>

Add/pass the required system properties while running the client

System.setProperty("otel.traces.exporter", "jaeger");
System.setProperty("otel.exporter.jaeger.endpoint", "http://localhost:14250");
System.setProperty("otel.resource.attributes", "service.name=selenium-java-client");

ImmutableCapabilities capabilities = new ImmutableCapabilities("browserName", "chrome");

WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL("http://www.example.com"), capabilities);

driver.get("http://www.google.com");

driver.quit();

  

Please refer to Tracing Setup for more information on external dependencies versions required for the desired Selenium version.

More information can be found at: